7,473 research outputs found


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    Global Energy Strategies to Control Future Carbon Dioxide Emissions

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    The objective of the collaborative IIASA-CRIEPI study was to develop an analytical framework and formulate scenarios for evaluating the effectiveness of policy options in global/regional energy systems directed at delaying or mitigating the global-warming effect over the first half of the 21st century. The study is therefore aimed at the development of analytical tools for evaluating long-term energy/climate countermeasure options, taking into account the influence on energy demand and supply of changes in social needs, economic and population growth, governmental policies, and technological progress. The approach is based on scenario simulations to describe those techno-economic and socio-cultural changes which determine future energy-use patterns and their environmental impacts. For this purpose, two scenarios have been formulated: one with changes in society, economic systems, and the energy sector that follow the dynamics-as-usual pattern, and the other with enhanced energy efficiency improvements and conservation efforts. For each scenario three different cases have been analyzed reflecting the possible situations on the energy supply side. Addressing policy makers and specialists in energy demand and supply, the authors evaluate the consequences of various policy options and explore more efficient and effective measures for reducing environmental impacts, for example, through regional interactions such as technology transfer and technological progress. This report describes the relationship between the directions of policy orientations and the global energy situations in the future. The issues that require further investigation include the process of international cooperation on implementing the measures proposed, the evaluation of the costs associated with the construction of future energy systems as well as the introduction of advanced technologies, and formulation of a global strategy to control not only carbon dioxide as examined in this study but also all the greenhouse gases

    Analysis of indoor environment and performance of net-zero energy building with vacuum glazed windows

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    The total energy and indoor thermal environment of an office building, which aims at the net-zero energy building, were measured and analysed. The annual total primary energy consumption of ‘Measurement’ was smaller than the value of ‘Calculation’ at design phase and achieved net-zero. The result of analysis of the thermal environment shows that the comfortable thermal environment was maintained. Also, the insulation performance and heat balance of the vacuum glazed windows in winter was evaluated. The overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by using the monitoring data were almost equal to the rated overall heat transfer coefficient and the high insulation performance of vacuum glazed windows was maintained even in the second year’s operation. In addition, the amount of heat gain due to solar radiation on the window surface was much larger than the amount of heat loss due to transmission. The vacuum glazed windows with high thermal insulation performance on the south side can reduce the heating load and contribute to the achievement of net-zero in the buildings

    The GEO 600 laser system

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    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors require high optical power, single frequency lasers with very good beam quality and high amplitude and frequency stability as well as high long-term reliability as input light source. For GEO 600 a laser system with these properties is realized by a stable planar, longitudinally pumped 12 W Nd:YAG rod laser which is injection-locked to a monolithic 800 mW Nd:YAG non-planar ring oscillator. Frequency control signals from the mode cleaners are fed to the actuators of the non-planar ring oscillator which determines the frequency stability of the system. The system power stabilization acts on the slave laser pump diodes which have the largest influence on the output power. In order to gain more output power, a combined Nd:YAGNd:YVO4 system is scaled to more than 22 W

    Gamma rays of energy or = 10(15) eV from Cyg X-3

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    The experimental data of extensive air showers observed at Akeno have been analyzed to detect the gamma ray signal from Cyg X-3. After muon poor air showers are selected, the correlation of data acquisition time with 4.8 hours X-ray period is studied, giving the data concentration near the phase 0.6, the time of X-ray maximum. The probability that uniform backgrounds create the distribution is 0.2%. The time averaged integral gamma ray flux is estimated as (1.1 + or - 0.4)x 10 to the -14th power cm(-2) sec(-1) for Eo 10 to the 15th power eV and (8.8 + or - 5.0)x 10 to the 14th power cm(-2) sec(-1) for Eo 6 x 10 to the 14th power eV

    Non-Negative Group Sparsity with Subspace Note Modelling for Polyphonic Transcription

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    This work was supported by EPSRC Platform Grant EPSRC EP/K009559/1, EPSRC Grant EP/L027119/1, and EPSRC Grant EP/J010375/1