4,734 research outputs found

    Effects of ion concentration on the hydrogen bonded structure of water in the vicinity of ions in aqueous NaCl solutions

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    Molecular dynamics simulations of dilute and concentrated aqueous NaCl solutions are carried out to investigate the changes of the hydrogen bonded structures in the vicinity of ions for different ion concentrations. An analysis of the hydrogen bond population in the first and second solvation shells of the ions and in the bulk water is done. Although essentially no effect of ions on the hydrogen bonding is observed beyond the first solvation shell of the ions for the dilute solutions, for the concentrated solutions a noticeable change in the average number of water-water hydrogen bonds is observed in the second solvation shells of the ions and even beyond. However, the changes in the average number of hydrogen bonds are found to be relatively less when both water-water and ion-water hydrogen bonds are counted. Thus, the changes in the total number of hydrogen bonds per water are not very dramatic beyond the first solvation shell even for concentrated solutions

    Lateral continuity of basement seismic reflections in 15 Ma ultrafast-spreading crust at ODP Site 1256

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    Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Geophysical Research 32 (2011): 429-439, doi:10.1007/s11001-011-9122-4.The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) initiated drilling at Site 1256D in the Guatemala Basin, about 1000km off the East Pacific Rise to penetrate plutonic rocks, anticipated to be relatively shallow in this region, formed at an ultra-fast spreading rate. IODP Expedition E312 successfully drilled into gabbros at ~ 1150m in basement. Multi-channel seismic traces show weak laterally coherent sub-basement reflections at borehole depths. Synthetic reflectivity seismograms were computed using a Ricker wavelet and impedance profiles from borehole sonic logs. These seismograms show significant sub-basement amplitude peaks. A zero-offset vertical seismic profile, shot on E312, was processed to investigate the authenticity of these reflections and their relationship to borehole geology. A dual scheme of the median filtering and F-K dip filtering was used. Tests with synthetic seismograms indicate the approach is effective at reasonable SNR levels. Downgoing energy is clearly identified but negligible upgoing energy is visible over random noise. These results indicate that lava flows and igneous contacts in upper ocean crust have significant topography on lateral scales less than the Fresnel Zone (~ 300m) due to igneous and tectonic processes

    Analogue Multiplier and Function Generator with Cathode Ray Tube

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    Prototyping Operational Autonomy for Space Traffic Management

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    Current state of the art in Space Traffic Management (STM) relies on a handful of providers for surveillance and collision prediction, and manual coordination between operators. Neither is scalable to support the expected 10x increase in spacecraft population in less than 10 years, nor does it support automated manuever planning. We present a software prototype of an STM architecture based on open Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), drawing on previous work by NASA to develop an architecture for low-altitude Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management. The STM architecture is designed to provide structure to the interactions between spacecraft operators, various regulatory bodies, and service suppliers, while maintaining flexibility of these interactions and the ability for new market participants to enter easily. Autonomy is an indispensable part of the proposed architecture in enabling efficient data sharing, coordination between STM participants and safe flight operations. Examples of autonomy within STM include syncing multiple non-authoritative catalogs of resident space objects, or determining which spacecraft maneuvers when preventing impending conjunctions between multiple spacecraft. The STM prototype is based on modern micro-service architecture adhering to OpenAPI standards and deployed in industry standard Docker containers, facilitating easy communication between different participants or services. The system architecture is designed to facilitate adding and replacing services with minimal disruption. We have implemented some example participant services (e.g. a space situational awareness provider/SSA, a conjunction assessment supplier/CAS, an automated maneuver advisor/AMA) within the prototype. Different services, with creative algorithms folded into then, can fulfil similar functional roles within the STM architecture by flexibly connecting to it using pre-defined APIs and data models, thereby lowering the barrier to entry of new players in the STM marketplace. We demonstrate the STM prototype on a multiple conjunction scenario with multiple maneuverable spacecraft, where an example CAS and AMA can recommend optimal maneuvers to the spacecraft operators, based on a predefined reward function. Such tools can intelligently search the space of potential collision avoidance maneuvers with varying parameters like lead time and propellant usage, optimize a customized reward function, and be implemented as a scheduling service within the STM architecture. The case study shows an example of autonomous maneuver planning is possible using the API-based framework. As satellite populations and predicted conjunctions increase, an STM architecture can facilitate seamless information exchange related to collision prediction and mitigation among various service applications on different platforms and servers. The availability of such an STM network also opens up new research topics on satellite maneuver planning, scheduling and negotiation across disjoint entities

    On Differential Structure for Projective Limits of Manifolds

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    We investigate the differential calculus defined by Ashtekar and Lewandowski on projective limits of manifolds by means of cylindrical smooth functions and compare it with the C^infty calculus proposed by Froehlicher and Kriegl in more general context. For products of connected manifolds, a Boman theorem is proved, showing the equivalence of the two calculi in this particular case. Several examples of projective limits of manifolds are discussed, arising in String Theory and in loop quantization of Gauge Theories.Comment: 38 pages, Latex 2e, to be published on J. Geom. Phys minor misprints corrected, reference adde

    A Novel Azeotropic Mixture for Solvent Extraction of Edible Oils

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    Rosana G. Moreira, Editor-in-Chief; Texas A&M UniversityThis is a paper from International Commission of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR, Commission Internationale du Genie Rural) E-Journal Volume 8 (2006): A Novel Azeotropic Mixture for Solvent Extraction of Edible Oils. Manuscript FP 06 005. Vol. VIII. April, 2006

    The mapping class group and the Meyer function for plane curves

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    For each d>=2, the mapping class group for plane curves of degree d will be defined and it is proved that there exists uniquely the Meyer function on this group. In the case of d=4, using our Meyer function, we can define the local signature for 4-dimensional fiber spaces whose general fibers are non-hyperelliptic compact Riemann surfaces of genus 3. Some computations of our local signature will be given.Comment: 24 pages, typo adde

    Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of CGLSS II and U.S. NLDN Using Ground-Truth Dalta from Launch Complex 398, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

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    A new comprehensive lightning instrumentation system has been designed for Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This new instrumentation system includes seven synchronized high-speed video cameras, current sensors installed on the nine downconductors of the new lightning protection system (LPS) for LC39B; four dH/dt, 3-axis measurement stations; and five dE/dt stations composed of two antennas each. The LPS received 8 direct lightning strikes (a total of 19 strokes) from March 31 through December 31 2011. The measured peak currents and locations are compared to those reported by the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS II) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Results of comparison are presented and analyzed in this paper

    Tri-snRNP-associated proteins interact with subunits of the TRAMP and nuclear exosome complexes, linking RNA decay and pre-mRNA splicing

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    Nuclear RNA decay factors are involved in many different pathways including rRNA processing, snRNA and snoRNA biogenesis, pre-mRNA processing, and the rapid decay of cryptic intergenic transcripts. In contrast to its yeast counterpart, the mammalian nuclear decay machinery is largely uncharacterized. Here we report interactions of several putative components of the human nuclear RNA decay machinery, including the TRAMP complex protein Mtr4 and the nuclear exosome constituents PM/Scl-100 and PM/Scl-75, with components of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP complex required for pre-mRNA splicing. The tri-snRNP component Prp31 interacts indirectly with Mtr4 and PM/Scl-100 in a manner that is dependent on the phosphorylation sites in the middle of the protein, while Prp3 and Prp4 interact with the nuclear decay complex independent of Prp31. Together our results suggest recruitment of the nuclear decay machinery to the spliceosome to ensure production of properly spliced mRNA
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