210 research outputs found

    Untargeted lipidomic features associated with colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort.

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    BackgroundEpidemiologists are beginning to employ metabolomics and lipidomics with archived blood from incident cases and controls to discover causes of cancer. Although several such studies have focused on colorectal cancer (CRC), they all followed targeted or semi-targeted designs that limited their ability to find discriminating molecules and pathways related to the causes of CRC.MethodsUsing an untargeted design, we measured lipophilic metabolites in prediagnostic serum from 66 CRC patients and 66 matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (Turin, Italy). Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS), resulting in 8690 features for statistical analysis.ResultsRather than the usual multiple-hypothesis-testing approach, we based variable selection on an ensemble of regression methods, which found nine features to be associated with case-control status. We then regressed each selected feature on time-to-diagnosis to determine whether the feature was likely to be either a potentially causal biomarker or a reactive product of disease progression (reverse causality).ConclusionsOf the nine selected LC-MS features, four appear to be involved in CRC etiology and merit further investigation in prospective studies of CRC. Four other features appear to be related to progression of the disease (reverse causality), and may represent biomarkers of value for early detection of CRC

    Intake of Natural Compounds and Circulating microRNA Expression Levels: Their Relationship Investigated in Healthy Subjects With Different Dietary Habits

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    Diet has a strong influence on many physiological processes, which in turn have important implications on a variety of pathological conditions. In this respect, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs playing a relevant epigenetic role in controlling gene expression, may represent mediators between the dietary intake and the healthy status. Despite great advances in the field of nutri-epigenomics, it remains unclear how miRNA expression is modulated by the diet and, specifically, the intake of specific nutrients. We investigated the whole circulating miRNome by small RNA-sequencing performed on plasma samples of 120 healthy volunteers with different dietary habits (vegans, vegetarians, and omnivores). Dietary intakes of specific nutrients were estimated for each subject from the information reported in the food-frequency questionnaire previously validated in the EPIC study. We focused hereby on the intake of 23 natural compounds (NCs) of the classes of lipids, micro-elements, and vitamins. We identified 78 significant correlations (rho > 0.300, p-value < 0.05) among the estimated daily intake of 13 NCs and the expression levels of 58 plasma miRNAs. Overall, vitamin D, sodium, and vitamin E correlated with the largest number of miRNAs. All the identified correlations were consistent among the three dietary groups and 22 of them were confirmed as significant (p-value < 0.05) by age-, gender-, and body-mass index-adjusted Generalized Linear regression Model analysis. miR-23a-3p expression levels were related with different NCs including a significant positive correlation with sodium (rho = 0.377) and significant negative correlations with lipid-related NCs and vitamin E. Conversely, the estimated intake of vitamin D was negatively correlated with the expression of the highest number of circulating miRNAs, particularly miR-1277-5p (rho = −0.393) and miR-144-3p (rho = −0.393). Functional analysis of the targets of sodium intake-correlated miRNAs highlighted terms related to cardiac development. A similar approach on targets of those miRNAs correlated with vitamin D intake showed an enrichment in genes involved in hormone metabolisms, while the response to chronic inflammation was among the top enriched processes involving targets of miRNAs negatively related with vitamin E intake. Our findings show that nutrients through the habitual diet influence circulating miRNA profiles and highlight that this aspect must be considered in the nutri-epigenomic research

    Association between TAS2R38 gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk

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    Molecular sensing in the lingual mucosa and in the gastro-intestinal tract play a role in the detection of ingested harmful drugs and toxins. Therefore, genetic polymorphisms affecting the capability of initiating these responses may be critical for the subsequent efficiency of avoiding and/or eliminating possible threats to the organism. By using a tagging approach in the region of Taste Receptor 2R38 (TAS2R38) gene, we investigated all the common genetic variation of this gene region in relation to colorectal cancer risk with a case-control study in a German population (709 controls and 602 cases) and in a Czech population (623 controls and 601 cases). We found that there were no significant associations between individual SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene and colorectal cancer in the Czech or in the German population, nor in the joint analysis. However, when we analyzed the diplotypes and the phenotypes we found that the non-taster group had an increased risk of colorectal cancer in comparison to the taster group. This association was borderline significant in the Czech population, (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 0.99-1.67; P(value) = 0.058) and statistically significant in the German population (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.06-1.75; P(value) = 0.016) and in the joint analysis (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.61; P(value) = 0.001). In conclusion, we found a suggestive association between the human bitter tasting phenotype and the risk of CRC in two different populations of Caucasian origin

    Double-strand break repair and colorectal cancer: gene variants within 3' UTRs and microRNAs binding as modulators of cancer risk and clinical outcome

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    Genetic variations in 3' untranslated regions of target genes may affect microRNA binding, resulting in differential protein expression. microRNAs regulate DNA repair, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in miRNA binding sites (miRSNPs) may account for interindividual differences in the DNA repair capacity. Our hypothesis is that miRSNPs in relevant DNA repair genes may ultimately affect cancer susceptibility and impact prognosis.In the present study, we analysed the association of polymorphisms in predicted microRNA target sites of double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair genes with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. Twenty-one miRSNPs in non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination pathways were assessed in 1111 cases and 1469 controls. The variant CC genotype of rs2155209 in MRE11A was strongly associated with decreased cancer risk when compared with the other genotypes (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.38-0.76, p = 0.0004). A reduced expression of the reporter gene was observed for the C allele of this polymorphism by in vitro assay, suggesting a more efficient interaction with potentially binding miRNAs. In colon cancer patients, the rs2155209 CC genotype was associated with shorter survival while the TT genotype of RAD52 rs11226 with longer survival when both compared with their respective more frequent genotypes (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.06-2.51, p = 0.03 HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.89, p = 0.01, respectively). miRSNPs in DSB repair genes involved in the maintenance of genomic stability may have a role on CRC susceptibility and clinical outcome

    Faecal miRNA profiles associated with age, sex, BMI, and lifestyle habits in healthy individuals

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    Abstract For their stability and detectability faecal microRNAs represent promising molecules with potential clinical interest as non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, there is no evidence on how stool miRNA profiles change according to an individual’s age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) or how lifestyle habits influence the expression levels of these molecules. We explored the relationship between the stool miRNA levels and common traits (sex, age, BMI, and menopausal status) or lifestyle habits (physical activity, smoking status, coffee, and alcohol consumption) as derived by a self-reported questionnaire, using small RNA-sequencing data of samples from 335 healthy subjects. We detected 151 differentially expressed miRNAs associated with one variable and 52 associated with at least two. Differences in miR-638 levels were associated with age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. The highest number of differentially expressed miRNAs was associated with BMI (n = 92) and smoking status (n = 84), with several miRNAs shared between them. Functional enrichment analyses revealed the involvement of the miRNA target genes in pathways coherent with the analysed variables. Our findings suggest that miRNA profiles in stool may reflect common traits and lifestyle habits and should be considered in relation to disease and association studies based on faecal miRNA expression
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