1,085 research outputs found

    The lifelong maintenance of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by Nurr1 and engrailed

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    Specific vulnerability and degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. A number of transcription factors regulate the birth and development of this set of neurons and some remain constitutively expressed throughout life. These maintenance transcription factors are closely associated with essential neurophysiological functions and are required ultimately for the long-term survival of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The current review describes the role of two such factors, Nurr1 and engrailed, in differentiation, maturation, and in normal physiological functions including acquisition of neurotransmitter identity. The review will also elucidate the relationship of these factors with life, vulnerability, degeneration and death of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in the context of Parkinson’s disease

    Adjustment formulae to improve the correlation of white-to-white measurement with direct measurement of the ciliary sulcus diameter by ultrasound biomicroscopy

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    Purpose: This study evaluates the correlation between horizontal white-to-white (WTW) distance using Caliper and Orbscan IIz with the ciliary sulcus diameter measured by high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and presents an adjustment formula to improve the correlation. Methods: We measured horizontal sulcus-to-sulcus (STS) dimension of 273 right eyes of 273 high myopic patients with 35 MHz UBM and horizontal WTW using Orbscan IIz and Caliper. Mean WTW diameter, differences, and the correlation of measurement methods were evaluated. Results: The mean spherical equivalent was �8.79 ± 4.87 diopters. Mean horizontal STS dimension with UBM was 12.13 ± 0.45 mm (range, 10.81�13.42 mm). Mean WTW diameter in the Caliper method was 11.70 ± 0.40 mm (range, 10.6�12.8 mm) and 11.70 ± 0.40 mm (range, 10.5�13.1 mm) in the Orbscan method. Mean difference of UBM STS and WTW with Caliper was 0.48 ± 0.28 mm (range, �0.19 to 1.37 mm). Mean difference of UBM STS diameter and Orbscan WTW was 0.38 ± 0.31 mm (range, �0.64 to 1.29 mm). The Pearson correlations of WTW diameter measured by Caliper and Orbscan with UBM's STS diameter were 0.778 and 0.773, respectively. This difference diminished after adjustment. The 95 limit of agreement was almost the same in Caliper and Orbscan (�0.07 to 1.03 compared with �0.23 to 0.99). Conclusion: There is a significant difference in measurements between STS diameter using UBM and WTW diameter utilizing Caliper and Orbscan. This difference diminished after our recommended adjustment. © 2017 Iranian Society of Ophthalmolog

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum