1,009 research outputs found

    Natural history of therapeutic management in oral cancer

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    The natural history of a diseases is greatly influenced by the course of therapeutic management. Just after the tissue stage of the disease is aver. The cure rate of diseases, particularly those of cancers, could probably be modified to a greater extent, if the natural history of the therapeutic manage┬şment is understood properly, so that the community education programme be organised in the proper direction, to trigger early diagnosis. Home remedy urn the first preference of 76.8% of oral cancer cases, 64.6% preferred traditional unqualified practitioners as their 2nd preference of place of treatment for oral cancer. Thus during the stage of fa stigium a case oj oral cancer gets frustrated with the hospital treatment and awaits death counting his day

    Evasion of IFN-╬│ Signaling by Francisella novicida Is Dependent upon Francisella Outer Membrane Protein C

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    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of the lethal disease tularemia. An outer membrane protein (FTT0918) of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis has been identified as a virulence factor. We generated a F. novicida (F. tularensis subsp. novicida) FTN_0444 (homolog of FTT0918) fopC mutant to study the virulence-associated mechanism(s) of FTT0918.The ╬öfopC strain phenotype was characterized using immunological and biochemical assays. Attenuated virulence via the pulmonary route in wildtype C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, as well as in knockout (KO) mice, including MHC I, MHC II, and ┬ÁmT (B cell deficient), but not in IFN-╬│ or IFN-╬│R KO mice was observed. Primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) prepared from C57BL/6 mice treated with rIFN-╬│ exhibited greater inhibition of intracellular ╬öfopC than wildtype U112 strain replication; whereas, IFN-╬│R KO macrophages showed no IFN-╬│-dependent inhibition of ╬öfopC replication. Moreover, phosphorylation of STAT1 was downregulated by the wildtype strain, but not the fopC mutant, in rIFN-╬│ treated macrophages. Addition of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an NOS inhibitor, led to an increase of ╬öfopC replication to that seen in the BMDM unstimulated with rIFN-╬│. Enzymatic screening of ╬öfopC revealed aberrant acid phosphatase activity and localization. Furthermore, a greater abundance of different proteins in the culture supernatants of ╬öfopC than that in the wildtype U112 strain was observed.F. novicida FopC protein facilitates evasion of IFN-╬│-mediated immune defense(s) by down-regulation of STAT1 phosphorylation and nitric oxide production, thereby promoting virulence. Additionally, the FopC protein also may play a role in maintaining outer membrane stability (integrity) facilitating the activity and localization of acid phosphatases and other F. novicida cell components

    The Role of T cell PPAR ╬│ in mice with experimental inflammatory bowel disease

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ╬│ (PPAR ╬│) is a nuclear receptor whose activation has been shown to modulate macrophage and T cell-mediated inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which the deletion of PPAR ╬│ in T cells modulates immune cell distribution and colonic gene expression and the severity of experimental IBD.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>PPAR ╬│ flfl; CD4 Cre<sup>+ </sup>(CD4cre) or Cre- (WT) mice were challenged with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate in their drinking water for 0, 2, or 7 days. Mice were scored on disease severity both clinically and histopathologically. Flow cytometry was used to assess lymphocyte and macrophage populations in the blood, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Global gene expression in colonic mucosa was profiled using Affymetrix microarrays.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The deficiency of PPAR ╬│ in T cells accelerated the onset of disease and body weight loss. Examination of colon histopathology revealed significantly greater epithelial erosion, leukocyte infiltration, and mucosal thickening in the CD4cre mice on day 7. CD4cre mice had more CD8<sup>+ </sup>T cells than WT mice and fewer CD4<sup>+</sup>FoxP3<sup>+ </sup>regulatory T cells (Treg) and IL10<sup>+</sup>CD4<sup>+ </sup>T cells in blood and MLN, respectively. Transcriptomic profiling revealed around 3000 genes being transcriptionally altered as a result of DSS challenge in CD4cre mice. These included up-regulated mRNA expression of adhesion molecules, proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1╬▓, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) on day 7. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that the ribosome and Krebs cycle pathways were downregulated while the apoptosis pathway was upregulated in colons of mice lacking PPAR ╬│ in T cells.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The expression of PPAR ╬│ in T cells is involved in preventing gut inflammation by regulating colonic expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory mediators at later stages of disease while favoring the recruitment of Treg to the mucosal inductive sites.</p

    Measurement of the inclusive and dijet cross-sections of b-jets in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    The inclusive and dijet production cross-sections have been measured for jets containing b-hadrons (b-jets) in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements use data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 34 pb^-1. The b-jets are identified using either a lifetime-based method, where secondary decay vertices of b-hadrons in jets are reconstructed using information from the tracking detectors, or a muon-based method where the presence of a muon is used to identify semileptonic decays of b-hadrons inside jets. The inclusive b-jet cross-section is measured as a function of transverse momentum in the range 20 < pT < 400 GeV and rapidity in the range |y| < 2.1. The bbbar-dijet cross-section is measured as a function of the dijet invariant mass in the range 110 < m_jj < 760 GeV, the azimuthal angle difference between the two jets and the angular variable chi in two dijet mass regions. The results are compared with next-to-leading-order QCD predictions. Good agreement is observed between the measured cross-sections and the predictions obtained using POWHEG + Pythia. MC@NLO + Herwig shows good agreement with the measured bbbar-dijet cross-section. However, it does not reproduce the measured inclusive cross-section well, particularly for central b-jets with large transverse momenta.Comment: 10 pages plus author list (21 pages total), 8 figures, 1 table, final version published in European Physical Journal

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at ÔłÜ s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector