4,924 research outputs found

    Cycle tourism development in the Peak District National Park, United Kingdom

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    ABSTRACT Protected areas are at the centre of nature-based tourism, which is increasingly popular across the world. As visitor numbers increase, so does awareness of the harmful effects that large crowds may have on both natural resources and individuals’ recreational experience. This volume considers the challenge of transportation to and within natural and protected areas, the improvement of which has already been recognised as having great potential for mitigating the environmental impacts of ecotourism. While several books have focused considerable attention to the management of protected areas in general, little has been said about the specific issue of sustainable transport, an emerging trend that is already reshaping visitation patterns in natural settings. This book provides current knowledge on issues associated with the transportation of visitors in natural and protected areas, and a comprehensive overview of the technical and strategic options available to tackle these issues. It approaches the subject via three main topics: preferences, or the visitors' attitudes towards transportation; practices, where current approaches are assessed through examples and case-studies of successful experiences and methodologies from around the world; and policies, where suggestions and recommendations are put forward for both local scale strategies and broad-scale regulatory action with global relevance. Contributors include academics in the field of natural resource management and tourism, with extensive experience in protected area management and active partnerships with natural park administrations

    BEYOND THE MYTH: Screenwriting Approaches to Biographical Films

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    This PhD submission comprises an original screenplay on the relationship between African American activist Paul Robeson and the mining community of south Wales titled Robeson: They Can’t Stop Us Singing, and the accompanying exegesis. The aim is to explore, by academic study (gnosis) and creative practice (praxis), the previously overlooked field of writing biographical films, or biopics, and to acknowledge the role of the screenwriter in telling a person’s life story on film. The script is the experiment; the exegesis is the analysis and methodology. The role of the screenwriter is underrepresented across cinema studies, but no more so than in the discussion of biopics. My exegesis begins by exploring what academic and popular writing already exists on English-language biopics, highlighting that amidst auteurist approaches prevalent in cinema studies, little credit has been afforded to screenwriters. I seek to address this by examining how screenwriters have responded to historiographical and socio-political contexts while balancing the needs of the audience with factual integrity (or sometimes not), before using the case studies of Abraham Lincoln and Charles Lindbergh to explore how American hero figures have been represented on screen. How does a script written on Lincoln in 1939, for example, differ in terms of tone and political philosophy to one delivered in the 21st century? Using historical approaches, the exegesis then examines the life of Paul Robeson and the Welsh miners he knew, to observe the meticulous choices required by the screenwriter researching and writing a biopic script. Using primary sources (interviews with living dramatic writers, including the BAFTA-nominated screenwriter of the biopic, Good Vibrations) and secondary sources (screenplays, films, audio, interviews, other academic writing), I question where and when to begin and end a biographical story, which parts of a person’s life to include or jettison, how to make a historical figure’s events pertinent to a contemporary audience, and how to utilise fictionalised elements in a drama while adhering to a central truth. My own screenplay on Robeson and Wales is the embodiment of this research. The script demonstrates the myriad artistic decisions that need to be made to present the qualities and flaws of the historical figure. It shows why fictionalised moments and composite characters contribute to an understanding of a real person’s motives and feelings in a way documentary and historical writing cannot. And it stands as a record of the screenwriter’s previously overlooked contribution to creating biographical films

    The climate impacts of atmospheric aerosols using in-situ measurements, satellite retrievals and global climate model simulations

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    Aerosols contribute the largest uncertainty to estimates of radiative forcing of the Earth’s atmosphere, which are thought to exert a net negative radiative forcing, offsetting a potentially significant but poorly constrained fraction of the positive radiative forcing associated with greenhouse gases. Aerosols perturb the Earth’s radiative balance directly by absorbing and scattering radiation and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, altering cloud albedo and potentially cloud lifetime. One of the major factors governing the uncertainty in estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing is the poorly constrained aerosol single scattering albedo, which is the ratio of the aerosol scattering to extinction. In this thesis, I describe a new instrument for the measurement of aerosol optical properties using photoacoustic and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Characterisation is performed by assessing the instrument minimum sensitivity and accuracy as well as verifying the accuracy of its calibration procedure. The instrument and calibration accuracies are assessed by comparing modelled to measured optical properties of well-characterised laboratory-generated aerosol. I then examine biases in traditional, filter-based absorption measurements by comparing to photoacoustic spectrometer absorption measurements for a range of aerosol sources at multiple wavelengths. Filter-based measurements consistently overestimate absorption although the bias magnitude is strongly source-dependent. Biases are consistently lowest when an advanced correction scheme is applied, irrespective of wavelength or aerosol source. Lastly, I assess the sensitivity of the direct radiative effect of biomass burning aerosols to aerosol and cloud optical properties over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean using a combination of offline radiative transfer modelling, satellite observations and global climate model simulations. Although the direct radiative effect depends on aerosol and cloud optical properties in a non-linear way, it appears to be only weakly dependent on sub-grid variability.Natural Environment Research CouncilMet Offic

    Post-neoliberalism? An introduction

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    This article provides an introduction to the special issue on post-neoliberalism. It does so by considering challenges to the neoliberal order that have come, post-financial crisis, from the political right. It looks closely at the relation of neoliberalism to conservatism, on one hand, and libertarianism, on the other, in order to address the threat posed to the neoliberal order by paleoconservatism, neoreactionary politics, ordonationalism, libertarian paternalism, and different forms of sovereignty and elite power. The final section of this introduction reflects on the challenge to the neoliberal orthodoxy posed by the current COVID-19 crisis. For while events of 2020–21 have facilitated new forms of privatization of many public services and goods, they also signal, potentially, a break from the neoliberal orthodoxies of the previous four decades, and, in particular, from their overriding concern for the market

    The Financialization of Anti-capitalism? The case of the ‘Financial Independence Retire Early’ Community

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    The Financial Independence Retire Early (FIRE) community consists of individuals each personally dedicated to reducing consumption, so as to build up financial surpluses that are eventually adequate to live off. While it shares certain features in common with other ‘financial independence’ ideologies and self-help communities, one thing that distinguishes it is the emphasis on frugality. Freedom comes to consist not only in independence from the labour market, but also from materialism, consumerism and consumer debt. At the same time, this freedom is predicated on passive investment in the stock market and reliance on financial techniques for representing the future. Using semi-structured interviews with leading FIRE advocates and analysis of books and blog content, this paper assesses the ambivalent moral economy of FIRE, to understand how and why individuals seek this unusual relationship to capitalism, that pursues the status of rentier through the strategic rejection of materialism

    The paternal function: conceptual and therapeutic relevance

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    : The construct of the ‘pre-oedipal’ paternal function, as distinct from the traditional ‘oedipal’ paternal function, is an important yet under-developed focus of study in both the field of infant development and psychoanalytic clinical practice. This thesis contributes towards the development of an integrated concept of the paternal function as well as to a deeper understanding of the different aspects of the construct and its application. A critical literature review of psychoanalytic literature on the ‘paternal function’ highlights an absence of recognition of the importance of the construct, as it is salient in the earliest period of infancy, and characterises it as fragmented and diversely understood when it is mentioned. Four aspects of the paternal function which appear to be the dominant aspects in the literature are identified and elaborated in some detail. Also noted is the tendency for the non-gendered nature of several aspects of the paternal function to be overlooked because of the regular conflation of the role of the father and the paternal function. Extending this theoretically based observation into the domain of therapeutic practice, the conceptualisations of the pre-oedipal paternal function and the extent to which it is employed as a clinical tool was garnered from a sample of self-identified psychoanalytic psychotherapists based in Johannesburg, South Africa. Interviews of the topic were conducted with eight experienced practitioners and subject to thematic analysis guided by existing theory. The findings articulated closely with the international literature which points to a nebulous understanding of the concept and a general absence of reference to it as relevant in clinical formulations. In addition, based on the interview data, some proposals as to why the paternal function poses such a definitional difficulty and why, furthermore, the paternal functionary is apparently persona non grata in the clinical setting, are discussed. Finally, the case for the usefulness of the pre-oedipal paternal function in clinical practice is elucidated through the discussion of four clinical cases, each addressing a particular aspect of the pre-oedipal paternal function. Based on both a critical review of the literature and empirical data in the form of interviews of psychotherapists, and case material, the thesis makes a cogent case for foregrounding and refining conceptual and applied understandings of the construct of the ‘pre-oedipal’ paternal function, highlighting the gendered and non gendered attributes associated with performance of a set of functions associated with the construct

    Combining personal with social information facilitates host defences and explains why cuckoos should be secretive.

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    Individuals often vary defences in response to local predation or parasitism risk. But how should they assess threat levels when it pays their enemies to hide? For common cuckoo hosts, assessing parasitism risk is challenging: cuckoo eggs are mimetic and adult cuckoos are secretive and resemble hawks. Here, we show that egg rejection by reed warblers depends on combining personal and social information of local risk. We presented model cuckoos or controls at a pair's own nest (personal information of an intruder) and/or on a neighbouring territory, to which they were attracted by broadcasts of alarm calls (social information). Rejection of an experimental egg was stimulated only when hosts were alerted by both social and personal information of cuckoos. However, pairs that rejected eggs were not more likely to mob a cuckoo. Therefore, while hosts can assess risk from the sight of a cuckoo, a cuckoo cannot gauge if her egg will be accepted from host mobbing. Our results reveal how hosts respond rapidly to local variation in parasitism, and why it pays cuckoos to be secretive, both to avoid alerting their targets and to limit the spread of social information in the local host neighbourhood.We thank the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and Society in Science – Branco Weiss for financial support.This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Nature Publishing Group via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep1987

    Providing Public Transport for Tourists in Rural Areas

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    Travel, both to the destination area and within the area, accounts for a high proportion of tourism’s emissions. Yet, relatively little attention has been directed at reducing emissions through encouraging visitors to use public rather private transport. This paper reports the findings of surveys of bus passengers within British rural tourist areas and demonstrates how they bring extra visitors and spending to attractions, while reducing car use. It discusses the potential of using public transport to enhance the tourism offer and the problems, and some solutions, of funding such services. Recent developments are introduced

    Resuscitation-promoting factors possess a lysozyme-like domain

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    The novel bacterial cytokine family – resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpfs) – share a conserved domain of uncharacterized function. Predicting the structure of this domain suggests that Rpfs possess a lysozyme-like domain. The model highlights the good conservation of residues involved in catalysis and substrate binding. A lysozyme-like function makes sense for this domain in the light of experimental characterization of the biological function of Rpfs

    Haemodiafiltration and haemodialysis should be reported separately by kidney replacement therapy registries

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