44 research outputs found

    Physical Training Programs After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

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    Exercise-based rehabilitation is considered an important adjunct therapy for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease, mainly in populations with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention. Thus, the increasing number of cardiac surgeries along the years is enlarging the participation of patients in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Encouraging exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation might decreases in-hospital stay, speeds returns to work and reduces costs in public health. Recently, two training modalities of exercise gained much attention in cardiac rehabilitation programs: continuous exercise and high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIIAT). The aim of this chapter is to review the effects of HIIAT in patients that undergone to CABG or other cardiac surgeries regarding clinical and physiological parameters such as death, cardiovascular outcomes, aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, quality of life and other parameters, beyond to evaluate the feasibility and safety of HIIAT in this patient’s group

    Effects of intravenous furosemide on mucociliary transport and rheological properties of patients under mechanical ventilation

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    The use of intravenous (IV) furosemide is common practice in patients under mechanical ventilation (MV), but its effects on respiratory mucus are largely unknown. Furosemide can affect respiratory mucus either directly through inhibition of the NaK(Cl)(2) co-transporter on the basolateral surface of airway epithelium or indirectly through increased diuresis and dehydration. We investigated the physical properties and transportability of respiratory mucus obtained from 26 patients under MV distributed in two groups, furosemide (n = 12) and control (n = 14). Mucus collection was done at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours. The rheological properties of mucus were studied with a microrheometer, and in vitro mucociliary transport (MCT) (frog palate), contact angle (CA) and cough clearance (CC) (simulated cough machine) were measured. After the administration of furosemide, MCT decreased by 17 ± 19%, 24 ± 11%, 18 ± 16% and 18 ± 13% at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours respectively, P < 0.001 compared with control. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the control group. The remaining parameters did not change significantly in either group. Our results support the hypothesis that IV furosemide might acutely impair MCT in patients under MV

    Effects of Different Peep Levels on Mesenteric Leukocyte-Endothelial Interactions in Rats During Mechanical Ventilation

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    INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation and treats acute pulmonary failure. However, increased intrathoracic pressure may cause regional blood flow alterations that may contribute to mesenteric ischemia and gastrointestinal failure. We investigated the effects of different PEEP levels on mesenteric leukocyte-endothelial interactions. METHODS: Forty-four male Wistar rats were initially anesthetized (Pentobarbital I.P. 50mg/kg) and randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) NAIVE (only anesthesia; n=9), 2) PEEP 0 (PEEP of 0 cmH2O, n=13), 3) PEEP 5 (PEEP of 5 cmH2O, n=12), and 4) PEEP 10 (PEEP of 10 cmH2O, n=13). Positive end expiratory pressure groups were tracheostomized and mechanically ventilated with a tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, respiratory rate of 70 rpm, and inspired oxygen fraction of 1. Animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. After two hours, laparotomy was performed, and leukocyte-endothelial interactions were evaluated by intravital microscopy. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in mean arterial blood pressure among groups during the study. Tracheal peak pressure was smaller in PEEP 5 compared with PEEP 0 and PEEP 10 groups (11, 15, and 16 cmH2O, respectively; p<0.05). After two hours of MV, there were no differences among NAIVE, PEEP 0 and PEEP 5 groups in the number of rollers (118±9,127±14 and 147±26 cells/10minutes, respectively), adherent leukocytes (3±1,3±1 and 4±2 cells/100µm venule length, respectively), and migrated leukocytes (2±1,2±1 and 2±1 cells/5,000µm², respectively) at the mesentery. However, the PEEP 10 group exhibited an increase in the number of rolling, adherent and migrated leukocytes (188±15 cells / 10 min, 8±1 cells / 100 µm and 12±1 cells / 5,000 µm², respectively; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High intrathoracic pressure was harmful to mesenteric microcirculation in the experimental model of rats with normal lungs and stable systemic blood pressure, a finding that may have relevance for complications related to mechanical ventilation

    The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation

    pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

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    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study). RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively). Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Universidade de São Paulo Faculdade de Medicina Department of PathologyUniversidade de São Paulo Faculdade de Medicina Department of PhysiotherapyPhilipps University Department of PulmonologyLeiden University Medical Center Department of PulmonologyUniversidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) School of Medicine Department of PneumologyPneumology Division Pneumology DivisionInstituto do Coracao Instituto do CoracaoUniversidade de São Paulo Faculdade de MedicinaUniversidade de São Paulo Faculdade de Medicina Department of Internal MedicineUniversidade de São Paulo Public Health Faculty Department of EpidemiologyUniversidade de São Paulo Institute of Mathematics and StatisticsUNIFESP, School of Medicine Department of PneumologyFAPESP: 07/51605-9FAPESP: 09/50056-7CNPq: 555.223/06-0SciEL

    Home-based training program in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: a randomized pilot study

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    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effects of home-and center-based exercise training programs on functional capacity, inspiratory muscle strength, daily physical activity level, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) over a 12-week period. METHODS: This study included 23 patients with CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction 31±6%) randomized to a home-based (n=11) or center-based (n=12) program. Patients underwent 12 weeks of aerobic training (60%-70% heart rate reserve): walking for the home-based and supervised cycling for the center-based group, both combined with resistance training (50% of 1 maximum repetition). At baseline and after 12 weeks of training, we assessed cardiopulmonary test variables, 6-min walk test distance (6 MWD), steps/day with accelerometry, and QoL (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire). Maximal inspiratory pressure and handgrip strength were measured at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03615157. RESULTS: There were no adverse events during training in either group. The home- and center-based training groups obtained similar improvements in peak oxygen uptake, maximal ventilation, and 6 MWD. However, there were significant between-group differences: center-based training was more effective in improving maximal inspiratory pressure (p=0.042), number of steps/day (p=0.001), and QoL (p=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Home-based training is safe and can be an alternative to improve the exercise capacity of patients with stable CHF. However, center-based training was superior in improving inspiratory muscle strength, QoL, and daily physical activity

    pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

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    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers relatedto air pollution.METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smorking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in ixhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study).RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values concentrations in both substrates, however, Il-aB and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration weas greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers.CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers
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