2,468 research outputs found

    Isokinetic Evaluation of the Elbow Joint at 45¬į and 80¬į of Shoulder Abduction

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    Since Hislop and Thistle published the first reports on isokinetic exercise, a lot of progress has been made towards the use of isokinetic exercise and isokinetic evaluation of muscle and joint performance in sports and orthopedic physical therapy. Cybex II+ with the Cybex Data Reduction Computer is one of the most widely used isokinetic systems for research and rehabilitation purposes. There are more than 500 published works describing the use of Cybex in various applications, Many investigations have used the Cybex isokinetic system to develop normative data on torque and work measurements of various muscle groups. Normative data are valuable to clinicians in the evaluation of the severity of an injury in terms of muscle performance deficits. In addition, such data provide physical therapists with objective data in setting rehabilitation goals, and enabling sports medicine experts to identify functional deficiencies during screening of athletes. There is a limited number of published works that have developed normative data for elbow flexor and extensor muscle groups. While there is some information about peak torque and agonist-antagonist ratios, minimal information is available about torque acceleration energy, work endurance ratios, average power and flexion-extension total work ratios. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 450 and 800 of shoulder abduction on torque and work measurements of the elbow joint. In addition, normative data for elbow flexion and extension at both arm positions (testing positions suggested by Cybex) were developed

    Validation of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform for modelling a CsI(Tl) scintillation camera dedicated to small animal imaging

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    Monte Carlo simulations are increasingly used in scintigraphic imaging to model imaging systems and to develop and assess tomographic reconstruction algorithms and correction methods for improved image quantitation. GATE (GEANT 4 Application for Tomographic Emission) is a new Monte Carlo simulation platform based on GEANT4 dedicated to nuclear imaging applications. This paper describes the GATE simulation of a prototype of scintillation camera dedicated to small animal imaging and consisting of a CsI(Tl) crystal array coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube. The relevance of GATE to model the camera prototype was assessed by comparing simulated 99mTc point spread functions, energy spectra, sensitivities, scatter fractions and image of a capillary phantom with the corresponding experimental measurements. Results showed an excellent agreement between simulated and experimental data: experimental spatial resolutions were predicted with an error less than 100 mu m. The difference between experimental and simulated system sensitivities for different source-to-collimator distances was within 2%. Simulated and experimental scatter fractions in a [98-182 keV] energy window differed by less than 2% for sources located in water. Simulated and experimental energy spectra agreed very well between 40 and 180 keV. These results demonstrate the ability and flexibility of GATE for simulating original detector designs. The main weakness of GATE concerns the long computation time it requires: this issue is currently under investigation by the GEANT4 and the GATE collaboration

    A monitoring method for the Low Voltage Power Supply modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

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    We present a method for testing the operational stability of Low Voltage Power Supply modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter, based on a self-consistent determination of the stability criteria. The recorded voltage, current, and temperature values of each module are retrieved from the Oracle database for a long and smooth running period and their mean and RMS values over that period are determined, as well as their average recording rates, by taking into account the √Ę??smoothing√Ę?? procedure which is applied during data recording to reduce data storage. The average behavior of the ensemble of all modules is determined from those time-integrated quantities and the modules are then tested one-by-one by comparing with the ensemble averages. The proposed method is tested for all Long Barrel modules operated during April of 2007

    A PMT-Block test bench

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    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called {\it PMT-Block}. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a {\it 3-in-1} card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterisation are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported.Comment: 23 pages, 10 figure

    Design and construction of new central and forward muon counters for CDF II

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    New scintillation counters have been designed and constructed for the CDF upgrade in order to complete the muon coverage of the central CDF detector, and to extend this coverage to larger pseudorapidity. A novel light collection technique using wavelength shifting fibers, together with high quality polystyrene-based scintillator resulted in compact counters with good and stable light collection efficiency over lengths extending up to 320 cm. Their design and construction is described and results of their initial performance are reported.Comment: 20 pages, 15 figure

    Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Calorimetry in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method

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    This paper discusses hadron energy reconstruction for the ATLAS barrel prototype combined calorimeter (consisting of a lead-liquid argon electromagnetic part and an iron-scintillator hadronic part) in the framework of the non-parametrical method. The non-parametrical method utilizes only the known e/he/h ratios and the electron calibration constants and does not require the determination of any parameters by a minimization technique. Thus, this technique lends itself to an easy use in a first level trigger. The reconstructed mean values of the hadron energies are within ¬Ī1\pm 1% of the true values and the fractional energy resolution is [(58¬Ī3)/E+(2.5¬Ī0.3)[(58\pm3)% /\sqrt{E}+(2.5\pm0.3)%]\oplus (1.7\pm0.2)/E. The value of the e/he/h ratio obtained for the electromagnetic compartment of the combined calorimeter is 1.74¬Ī0.041.74\pm0.04 and agrees with the prediction that e/h>1.7e/h > 1.7 for this electromagnetic calorimeter. Results of a study of the longitudinal hadronic shower development are also presented. The data have been taken in the H8 beam line of the CERN SPS using pions of energies from 10 to 300 GeV.Comment: 33 pages, 13 figures, Will be published in NIM
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