875 research outputs found

    Virus protein of mosaic disease of tobacco

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    Publication authorized February 9, 1939.Digitized 2007 AES.Includes bibliographical references (page 12)

    Semantic activation in LSD: evidence from picture naming

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    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a classic psychedelic drug that alters cognition in a characteristic way. It has been suggested that psychedelics expand the breadth of cognition via actions on the central nervous system. Previous work has shown changes in semantic processing under psilocybin (a related psychedelic to LSD) that are consistent with an increased spread of semantic activation. The present study investigates this further using a picture-naming task and the psychedelic, LSD. Ten participants completed the task under placebo and LSD. Results revealed significant effects of LSD on accuracy and error correction that were consistent with an increased spread of semantic activation under LSD. These results are consistent with a generalised “entropic” effect on the mind. We suggest incorporating direct neuroimaging measures in future studies, and to employ more naturalistic measures of semantic processing that may enhance ecological validity

    Lifetime determination of excited states in Cd-106

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    Two separate experiments using the Differential Decay Curve Method have been performed to extract mean lifetimes of excited states in 106 Cd. The inedium-spin states of interest were populated by the Mo-98(C-12, 4n) Cd-106 reaction performed at the Wright Nuclear Structure Lab., Yale University. From this experiment, two isomeric state mean lifetimes have been deduced. The low-lying states were populated by the Mo-96(C-13, 3n)Cd-106 reaction performed at the Institut fur Kernphysik, Universitat zu Koln. The mean lifetime of the I-pi = 2(1)(+) state was deduced, tentatively, as 16.4(9) ps. This value differs from the previously accepted literature value from Coulomb excitation of 10.43(9) ps

    Three-dimensional pattern formation, multiple homogeneous soft modes, and nonlinear dielectric electroconvection

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    Patterns forming spontaneously in extended, three-dimensional, dissipative systems are likely to excite several homogeneous soft modes (\approx hydrodynamic modes) of the underlying physical system, much more than quasi one- and two-dimensional patterns are. The reason is the lack of damping boundaries. This paper compares two analytic techniques to derive the patten dynamics from hydrodynamics, which are usually equivalent but lead to different results when applied to multiple homogeneous soft modes. Dielectric electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals is introduced as a model for three-dimensional pattern formation. The 3D pattern dynamics including soft modes are derived. For slabs of large but finite thickness the description is reduced further to a two-dimensional one. It is argued that the range of validity of 2D descriptions is limited to a very small region above threshold. The transition from 2D to 3D pattern dynamics is discussed. Experimentally testable predictions for the stable range of ideal patterns and the electric Nusselt numbers are made. For most results analytic approximations in terms of material parameters are given.Comment: 29 pages, 2 figure

    The CannTeen study: verbal episodic memory, spatial working memory, and response inhibition in adolescent and adult cannabis users and age-matched controls

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    BACKGROUND: Preclinical and human studies suggest that adolescent cannabis use may be associated with worse cognitive outcomes than adult cannabis use. We investigated the associations between chronic cannabis use and cognitive function in adolescent and adult cannabis users and controls. We hypothesised user-status would be negatively associated with cognitive function and this relationship would be stronger in adolescents than adults. METHODS: As part of the 'CannTeen' project, this cross-sectional study assessed cognitive performance in adolescent cannabis users (n = 76; 16-17-year-olds), adolescent controls (n = 63), adult cannabis users (n = 71; 26-29-year-olds) and adult controls (n = 64). Users used cannabis 1-7 days/week. Adolescent and adult cannabis users were matched on cannabis use frequency (4 days/week) and time since last use (2.5 days). Verbal episodic memory (VEM) was assessed using the prose recall task, spatial working memory (SWM) was assessed using the spatial n-back task, and response inhibition was assessed with the stop-signal task. Primary outcome variables were: delayed recall, 3-back discriminability, and stop signal reaction time, respectively. RESULTS: Users had worse VEM than controls (F(1,268) = 7.423, p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between user-groups on SWM or response inhibition. Null differences were supported by Bayesian analyses. No significant interactions between age-group and user-group were found for VEM, SWM, or response inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous research, there was an association between chronic cannabis use and poorer VEM, but chronic cannabis use was not associated with SWM or response inhibition. We did not find evidence for heightened adolescent vulnerability to cannabis-related cognitive impairment

    Exact Bayesian curve fitting and signal segmentation.

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    We consider regression models where the underlying functional relationship between the response and the explanatory variable is modeled as independent linear regressions on disjoint segments. We present an algorithm for perfect simulation from the posterior distribution of such a model, even allowing for an unknown number of segments and an unknown model order for the linear regressions within each segment. The algorithm is simple, can scale well to large data sets, and avoids the problem of diagnosing convergence that is present with Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) approaches to this problem. We demonstrate our algorithm on standard denoising problems, on a piecewise constant AR model, and on a speech segmentation problem

    Identification and characterization of a novel non-structural protein of bluetongue virus

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    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of a major disease of livestock (bluetongue). For over two decades, it has been widely accepted that the 10 segments of the dsRNA genome of BTV encode for 7 structural and 3 non-structural proteins. The non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3/NS3a) play different key roles during the viral replication cycle. In this study we show that BTV expresses a fourth non-structural protein (that we designated NS4) encoded by an open reading frame in segment 9 overlapping the open reading frame encoding VP6. NS4 is 77–79 amino acid residues in length and highly conserved among several BTV serotypes/strains. NS4 was expressed early post-infection and localized in the nucleoli of BTV infected cells. By reverse genetics, we showed that NS4 is dispensable for BTV replication in vitro, both in mammalian and insect cells, and does not affect viral virulence in murine models of bluetongue infection. Interestingly, NS4 conferred a replication advantage to BTV-8, but not to BTV-1, in cells in an interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral state. However, the BTV-1 NS4 conferred a replication advantage both to a BTV-8 reassortant containing the entire segment 9 of BTV-1 and to a BTV-8 mutant with the NS4 identical to the homologous BTV-1 protein. Collectively, this study suggests that NS4 plays an important role in virus-host interaction and is one of the mechanisms played, at least by BTV-8, to counteract the antiviral response of the host. In addition, the distinct nucleolar localization of NS4, being expressed by a virus that replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm, offers new avenues to investigate the multiple roles played by the nucleolus in the biology of the cell