1,261 research outputs found

    "All versus nothing" inseparability for two observers

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    A recent proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1911 (2001)] is formulated as a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like proof involving just two observers. On one hand, this new approach allows us to derive an experimentally testable Bell inequality which is violated by quantum mechanics. On the other hand, it leads to a new state-independent proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem and provides a wider perspective on the relations between the major proofs of no-hidden-variables.Comment: REVTeX, 4 page

    Multiparty multilevel Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

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    The proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities by Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger (GHZ) is extended to multiparticle multilevel systems. The proposed procedure generalizes previous partial results and provides an operational characterization of the so-called GHZ states for multiparticle multilevel systems.Comment: REVTeX, 5 pages, 1 figur

    Covariance, correlation and entanglement

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    Some new identities for quantum variance and covariance involving commutators are presented, in which the density matrix and the operators are treated symmetrically. A measure of entanglement is proposed for bipartite systems, based on covariance. This works for two- and three-component systems but produces ambiguities for multicomponent systems of composite dimension. Its relationship to angular momentum dispersion for symmetric symmetric spin states is described.Comment: 30 pages, Latex, to appear in J Phys

    Bell's theorem without inequalities and without probabilities for two observers

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    A proof of Bell's theorem using two maximally entangled states of two qubits is presented. It exhibits a similar logical structure to Hardy's argument of ``nonlocality without inequalities''. However, it works for 100% of the runs of a certain experiment. Therefore, it can also be viewed as a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like proof involving only two spacelike separated regions.Comment: REVTeX, 4 page

    Fourier-Space Crystallography as Group Cohomology

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    We reformulate Fourier-space crystallography in the language of cohomology of groups. Once the problem is understood as a classification of linear functions on the lattice, restricted by a particular group relation, and identified by gauge transformation, the cohomological description becomes natural. We review Fourier-space crystallography and group cohomology, quote the fact that cohomology is dual to homology, and exhibit several results, previously established for special cases or by intricate calculation, that fall immediately out of the formalism. In particular, we prove that {\it two phase functions are gauge equivalent if and only if they agree on all their gauge-invariant integral linear combinations} and show how to find all these linear combinations systematically.Comment: plain tex, 14 pages (replaced 5/8/01 to include archive preprint number for reference 22

    Bell's theorem with and without inequalities for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states

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    A proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities valid for both inequivalent classes of three-qubit entangled states under local operations assisted by classical communication, namely Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W, is described. This proof leads to a Bell inequality that allows more conclusive tests of Bell's theorem for three-qubit systems. Another Bell inequality involving both tri- and bipartite correlations is introduced which illustrates the different violations of local realism exhibited by the GHZ and W states.Comment: REVTeX4, 5 pages, 3 figure

    Uniqueness of a convex sum of products of projectors

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    Relative to a given factoring of the Hilbert space, the decomposition of an operator into a convex sum of products over sets of distinct 1-projectors, one set linearly independent, is unique.Comment: 4 pages. v2: Minor clarifications in Section III; as accepted for publication in J Math Phy

    Randomness, Nonlocality and information in entagled correlations

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    It is shown that the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) correlations for arbitrary spin-s and the Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger (GHZ) correlations for three particles can be described by nonlocal joint and conditional quantum probabilities. The nonlocality of these probabilities makes the Bell's inequalities void. A description that exhibits the relation between the randomness and the nonlocality of entangled correlations is introduced. Entangled EPR and GHZ correlations are studied using the Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The nonlocal character of the EPR correlations is tested using the information Bell's inequalities. Relations between the randomness, the nonlocality and the entropic information for the EPR and the GHZ correlations are established and discussed.Comment: 19 pages, REVTEX, 8 figures included in the uuencoded postscript fil

    Physical Logic

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    In R.D. Sorkin's framework for logic in physics a clear separation is made between the collection of unasserted propositions about the physical world and the affirmation or denial of these propositions by the physical world. The unasserted propositions form a Boolean algebra because they correspond to subsets of an underlying set of spacetime histories. Physical rules of inference, apply not to the propositions in themselves but to the affirmation and denial of these propositions by the actual world. This physical logic may or may not respect the propositions' underlying Boolean structure. We prove that this logic is Boolean if and only if the following three axioms hold: (i) The world is affirmed, (ii) Modus Ponens and (iii) If a proposition is denied then its negation, or complement, is affirmed. When a physical system is governed by a dynamical law in the form of a quantum measure with the rule that events of zero measure are denied, the axioms (i) - (iii) prove to be too rigid and need to be modified. One promising scheme for quantum mechanics as quantum measure theory corresponds to replacing axiom (iii) with axiom (iv) Nature is as fine grained as the dynamics allows.Comment: 14 pages, v2 published version with a change in the title and other minor change

    Quantum correlations are not local elements of reality

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    I show a situation of multiparticle entanglement which cannot be explained in the framework of an interpretation of quantum mechanics recently proposed by Mermin. This interpretation is based on the assumption that correlations between subsystems of an individual isolated composed quantum system are real objective local properties of that system.Comment: REVTeX, 3 page
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