37,767 research outputs found

    Nonlinear theory of shocked sound propagation in a nearly choked duct flow

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    The development of shocks in the sound field propagating through a nearly choked duct flow is analyzed by extending a quasi-one dimensional theory. The theory is applied to the case in which sound is introduced into the flow by an acoustic source located in the vicinity of a near-sonic throat. Analytical solutions for the field are obtained which illustrate the essential features of the nonlinear interaction between sound and flow. Numerical results are presented covering ranges of variation of source strength, throat Mach number, and frequency. It is found that the development of shocks leads to appreciable attenuation of acoustic power transmitted upstream through the near-sonic flow. It is possible, for example, that the power loss in the fundamental harmonic can be as much as 90% of that introduced at the source

    Effects of high subsonic flow on sound propagation in a variable-area duct

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    The propagation of sound in a converging-diverging duct containing a quasi-one-dimensional steady flow with a high subsonic throat Mach number was studied. The behavior of linearized acoustic theory at the throat of the duct was shown to be singular. This singularity implies that linearized acoustic theory is invalid. The explicit singular behavior was determined and used to sketch the development (by the method of matched asymptotic expansions) of a nonlinear theory for sound propagation in a sonic throat region

    Modelling the temperature, maturity and moisture content in a drying concrete block

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    In this paper we continue work from a previous Study Group in developing a model for the maturation of concrete. The model requires equations describing the temperature, moisture content and maturity (or amount of cement that has reacted with the water). Non-dimensionalisation is used to simplify the model and provide simple analytical solutions which are valid for early time maturation. A numerical scheme is also developed and simulations carried out for maturation over one day and then two months. For the longer simulation we also investigate the effect of building the block in a single pour or two stages

    Fission-fragment mass distributions from strongly damped shape evolution

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    Random walks on five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces were recently found to yield fission-fragment mass distributions that are in remarkable agreement with experimental data. Within the framework of the Smoluchowski equation of motion, which is appropriate for highly dissipative evolutions, we discuss the physical justification for that treatment and investigate the sensitivity of the resulting mass yields to a variety of model ingredients, including in particular the dimensionality and discretization of the shape space and the structure of the dissipation tensor. The mass yields are found to be relatively robust, suggesting that the simple random walk presents a useful calculational tool. Quantitatively refined results can be obtained by including physically plausible forms of the dissipation, which amounts to simulating the Brownian shape motion in an anisotropic medium.Comment: 14 pages, 11 ps figure

    Triaxial nuclear models and the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

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    The properties and composition of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by applying the model of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland (BPS) and taking into account for the first time triaxial deformations of nuclei. Two theoretical nuclear models, Hartree-Fock plus pairing in the BCS approximation (HF-BCS) with Skyrme SLy6 parametrization and Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) with Gogny D1S force, are used to calculate the nuclear masses. The two theoretical calculations are compared concerning their neutron drip line, binding energies, magic neutron numbers, and the sequence of nuclei in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars, with special emphasis on the effect of triaxial deformations. The BPS model is extended by the higher-order corrections for the atomic binding, screening, exchange and zero-point energies. The influence of the higher-order corrections on the sequence of the outer crust is investigated.Comment: 7 page

    Doctors who pilot the GMC's Tests of Competence: who volunteers and why?

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    Background: Doctors who are investigated by the General Medical Council (GMC) for performance concerns may be required to take a Test of Competence (ToC). The tests are piloted on volunteer doctors before they are used in Fitness to Practise (FtP) investigations. Objectives: To find out who volunteers to take a pilot ToC and why. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Between February 2011 and October 2012 we asked doctors who volunteered for a test to complete a questionnaire about their reasons for volunteering and recruitment. We analysed the data using descriptive statistics and Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: 301 doctors completed the questionnaire. Doctors who took a ToC voluntarily were mostly women, of white ethnicity, of junior grades, working in general practice and who held a Primary Medical Qualification from the UK. This was a different population to doctors under investigation and all registered doctors in the UK. Most volunteers heard about the GMC’s pilot events through email from a colleague and used the experience to gain exam practice for forthcoming postgraduate exams. Conclusions: The reference group of volunteers are not representative of doctors under FtP investigation. Our findings will be used to inform future recruitment strategies with the aim to encourage better matching of groups who voluntarily pilot a ToC with those under FtP investigation
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