120 research outputs found

    On the Andrews-Curtis equivalence

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    The Andrews-Curtis conjecture claims that every balanced presentation of the trivial group can be reduced to the standard one by a sequence of ``elementary transformations" which are Nielsen transformations augmented by arbitrary conjugations. It is a prevalent opinion that this conjecture is false; however, not many potential counterexamples are known. In this paper, we show that some of the previously proposed examples are actually not counterexamples. We hope that the tricks we used in constructing relevant chains of elementary transformations will be useful to those who attempt to establish the Andrews-Curtis equivalence in other situations. On the other hand, we give two rather general and simple methods for constructing balanced presentations of the trivial group; some of these presentations can be considered potential counterexamples to the Andrews-Curtis conjecture. One of the methods is based on a simple combinatorial idea of composition of group presentations, whereas the other one uses "exotic" knot diagrams of the unknot. We also consider the Andrews-Curtis equivalence in metabelian groups and reveal some interesting connections of relevant problems to well-known problems in K-theory.Comment: 16 pages, 1 figur

    Whitehead method and Genetic Algorithms

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    In this paper we discuss a genetic version (GWA) of the Whitehead's algorithm, which is one of the basic algorithms in combinatorial group theory. It turns out that GWA is surprisingly fast and outperforms the standard Whitehead's algorithm in free groups of rank >= 5. Experimenting with GWA we collected an interesting numerical data that clarifies the time-complexity of the Whitehead's Problem in general. These experiments led us to several mathematical conjectures. If confirmed they will shed light on hidden mechanisms of Whitehead Method and geometry of automorphic orbits in free groups.Comment: 29 pages, 7 figure

    Decidability of the Elementary Theory of a Torsion-Free Hyperbolic Group

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    Let G be a torsion free hyperbolic group. We prove that the elementary theory of G is decidable and admits an effective quantifier elimination to boolean combination of AE-formulas. The existence of such quantifier elimination was previously proved by Sela.Comment: Misprints and errors corrected, referee suggestions addressed. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1207.190

    A polynomial bound on solutions of quadratic equations in free groups

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    We provide polynomial upper bounds on the size of a shortest solution for quadratic equations in a free group. A similar bound is given for parametric solutions in the description of solutions sets of quadratic equations in a free group.Comment: 41 pages, 10 figure

    Undecidability of Equations in Free Lie Algebras

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    In this paper we prove undecidability of finite systems of equations in free Lie algebras of rank at least three over an arbitrary field. We show that the ring of integers Z\mathbb{Z} is interpretable by positive existential formulas in such free Lie algebras over a field of characteristic zero.Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1606.0361

    On Tarski's Decidability Problem

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    This note provides a brief guide to the current state of the literature on Tarski's problems with emphasis on features that distinguish the approach based on combinatorial and algorithmic group theory from the topological approach to Tarski's problem. We use this note to provide corrections to some typos and to address some misconceptions from the recent report by Z. Sela about the relations between the concepts and results in the approaches to the Tarski problems. We were forced to read Sela's papers to be able to address some of his comments, and found errors in his papers 6, 3 and 4 on Diophantine Geometry published in GAFA and Israel J. Math. which we mention in Section 4. His proceedings of the ICM 2002 paper also contains wrong Theorem 6 (to make it correct one has to change the definition of non-elementary hyperbolic ω\omega-residually free towers to make them equivalent to our coordinate groups of regular NTQ systems.)Comment: We address more comments in this versio

    Tarski-type problems for free associative algebras

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    In this paper we study fundamental model-theoretic questions for free associative algebras, namely, first-order classification, decidability of the first-order theory, and definability of the set of free bases. We show that two free associative algebras of finite rank over fields are elementarily equivalent if and only if their ranks are the same and the fields are equivalent in the weak second order logic. In particular, two free associative algebras of finite rank over the same field are elementarily equivalent if and only if they are isomorphic. We prove that if an arbitrary ring BB with at least one Noetherian proper centralizer is first-order equivalent to a free associative algebra of finite rank over an infinite field then BB is also a free associative algebra of finite rank over a field. This solves the elementary classification problem for free associative algebras in a wide class of rings. Finally, we present a formula of the ring language which defines the set of free bases in a free associative algebra of finite rank

    Equations in Algebras

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    We show that the Diophantine problem(decidability of equations) is undecidable in free associative algebras over any field and in the group algebras over any field of a wide variety of torsion free groups, including toral relatively hyperbolic groups, right angled Artin groups, commutative transitive groups, the fundamental groups of various graph groups, etc

    Effective JSJ Decompositions

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    In this paper we describe an elimination process which is a deterministic rewriting procedure that on each elementary step transforms one system of equations over free groups into a finitely many new ones. Infinite branches of this process correspond to cyclic splittings of the coordinate group of the initial system of equations. This allows us to construct algorithmically Grushko's decompositions of finitely generated fully residually free groups and cyclic [abelian] JSJ decompositions of freely indecomposable finitely generated fully residually free groups. We apply these results to obtain an effective description of the set of homomorphisms from a given finitely presented group into a free group, or, more generally, into an NTQ group.Comment: 126 pages, 15 figure

    Equations and fully residually free groups

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    This paper represents notes of the mini-courses given by the authors at the GCGTA conference in Dortmund (2007), Ottawa-Saint Sauveur conference (2007), Escola d'Algebra in Rio de Janeiro (2008) and Alagna (Italy, 2008) conference on equations in groups. We explain here the Elimination process for solving equations in a free group which has Makanin-Razborov process as a prototype. We also explain how we use this process to obtain the structure theorem for finitely generated fully residually free groups and many other results.Comment: 33 pages, 7 figure
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