61 research outputs found

    Search for third generation vector-like leptons with the ATLAS detector

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    The Standard Model of particle physics provides a concise description of the building blocks of our universe in terms of fundamental particles and their interactions. It is an extremely successful theory, providing a plethora of predictions that precisely match experimental observation. In 2012, the Higgs boson was observed at CERN and was the last particle predicted by the Standard Model that had yet-to-be discovered. While this added further credibility to the theory, the Standard Model appears incomplete. Notably, it only accounts for 5% of the energy density of the universe (the rest being ``dark matter'' and ``dark energy''), it cannot resolve the gravitational force with quantum theory, it does not explain the origin of neutrino masses and cannot account for matter/anti-matter asymmetry. The most plausible explanation is that the theory is an approximation and new physics remains. Vector-like leptons are well-motivated by a number of theories that seek to provide closure on the Standard Model. They are a simple addition to the Standard Model and can help to resolve a number of discrepancies without disturbing precisely measured observables. This thesis presents a search for vector-like leptons that preferentially couple to tau leptons. The search was performed using proton-proton collision data from the Large Hadron Collider collected by the ATLAS experiment from 2015 to 2018 at center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 inverse femtobarns. Final states of various lepton multiplicities were considered to isolate the vector-like lepton signal against Standard Model and instrumental background. The major backgrounds mimicking the signal are from WZ, ZZ, tt+Z production and from mis-identified leptons. A number of boosted decision trees were used to improve rejection power against background where the signal was measured using a binned-likelihood estimator. No excess relative to the Standard Model was observed. Exclusion limits were placed on vector-like leptons in the mass range of 130 to 898 GeV

    Simulation of Dark Bremsstrahlung in GEANT4

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    A technique for the simulation of dark bremsstrahlung for electrons and muons in GEANT4 is presented. The total cross section is calculated using the Weizs\"{a}cker-Williams approximation and the outgoing kinematics are produced by scaling events produced in MadGraph/MadEvent to lower incident lepton energies, allowing the simulation to account for thick targets and lepton sources without fixed energies. The accuracy of the cross sections used and kinematics produced are discussed. Examples of its usage are presented for leptons in several thick target scenarios.Comment: 14 pages, 10 figure

    Predictive Models to Evaluate the Interaction Effect of Soil-Tunnel Interaction Parameters on Surface and Subsurface Settlement

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    Nowadays, the need for subway tunnels has increased considerably with urbanization and population growth in order to facilitate movements. In urban areas, subway tunnels are excavated in shallow depths under densely populated areas and soft ground. Its associated hazards include poor ground conditions and surface settlement induced by tunneling. Various sophisticated variables influence the settlement of the ground surface caused by tunneling. The shield machine's operational parameters are critical due to the complexity of shield-soil interactions, tunnel geometry, and local geological parameters. Since all elements appear to have some effect on tunneling-induced settlement, none stand out as particularly significant; it might be challenging to identify the most important ones. This paper presents a new model of an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the partial dependency approach (PDA) to optimize the lack of explainability of ANN models and evaluate the sensitivity of the model response to tunneling parameters for the prediction of ground surface and subsurface settlement. For this purpose, 239 and 104 points for monitoring surface and subsurface settlement, respectively, were obtained from line Y, the west bond of Crossrail tunnels in London. The parameters of the ground surface, the trough, and the tunnel boring machine (TBM) were used to categorize the 12 potential input parameters that could impact the maximum settlement induced by tunneling. An ANN model and a standard statistical model of multiple linear regression (MLR) were also used to show the capabilities of the ANN model based on PDA in displaying the parameter's interaction impact. Performance indicators such as the correlation coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and t-test were generated to measure the prediction performance of the described models. According to the results, geotechnical engineers in general practice should attend closely to index properties to reduce the geotechnical risks related to tunneling-induced ground settlement. The results revealed that the interaction of two parameters that have different effects on the target parameter could change the overall impact of the entire model. Remarkably, the interaction between tunneling parameters was observed more precisely in the subsurface zone than in the surface zone. The comparison results also indicated that the proposed PDA-ANN model is more reliable than the ANN and MLR models in presenting the parameter interaction impact. It can be further applied to establish multivariate models that consider multiple parameters in a single model, better capturing the correlation among different parameters, leading to more realistic demand and reliable ground settlement assessments. This study will benefit underground excavation projects; the experts could make recommendations on the criteria for settlement control and controlling the tunneling parameters based on predicted results. Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-11-05 Full Text: PD

    Exploring cancer health disparities among formerly incarcerated African Americans

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    Incarcerated populations have a higher burden of chronic disease and elevated risk factors for cancer (BJS, 2012). In 2013, cancer (31%) and heart disease (26%) accounted for over half of all prisoner deaths. The Genomics Research Program of the National Cancer Institute’s Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (2016) identified incarcerated persons as an understudied population about which there is limited data regarding cancer risks and outcomes. A majority of studies on corrections populations focus on health issues associated with reduction of infectious diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis, and Hepatitis. Scant research has been conducted on issues associated with cancer prevention and control among African Americans with a history of incarceration. This qualitative, participatory, pilot research study explores the domains of cancer health disparities among African American men and women who were formerly incarcerated in Illinois prisons. Four qualitative focus groups will be conducted. The primary purpose of the focus groups is to collect and qualitatively analyze preliminary data on the barriers to access, utilization and treatment of cancer. This presentation seeks to: (1) describe the need for enhanced access to cancer care and treatment, (2) advocate for the inclusion of best practices in cancer care in corrections systems and, (3) identify policy recommendations and initiatives aimed at reducing cancer disparities among incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons

    Photon-rejection Power of the Light Dark Matter eXperiment in an 8 GeV Beam

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    The Light Dark Matter eXperiment (LDMX) is an electron-beam fixed-target experiment designed to achieve comprehensive model independent sensitivity to dark matter particles in the sub-GeV mass region. An upgrade to the LCLS-II accelerator will increase the beam energy available to LDMX from 4 to 8 GeV. Using detailed GEANT4-based simulations, we investigate the effect of the increased beam energy on the capabilities to separate signal and background, and demonstrate that the veto methodology developed for 4 GeV successfully rejects photon-induced backgrounds for at least 2Ă—10142\times10^{14} electrons on target at 8 GeV.Comment: 28 pages, 20 figures; corrected author lis

    The Changing Landscape for Stroke\ua0Prevention in AF: Findings From the GLORIA-AF Registry Phase 2

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    Background GLORIA-AF (Global Registry on Long-Term Oral Antithrombotic Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation) is a prospective, global registry program describing antithrombotic treatment patterns in patients with newly diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke. Phase 2 began when dabigatran, the first non\u2013vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC), became available. Objectives This study sought to describe phase 2 baseline data and compare these with the pre-NOAC era collected during phase 1. Methods During phase 2, 15,641 consenting patients were enrolled (November 2011 to December 2014); 15,092 were eligible. This pre-specified cross-sectional analysis describes eligible patients\u2019 baseline characteristics. Atrial fibrillation disease characteristics, medical outcomes, and concomitant diseases and medications were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Of the total patients, 45.5% were female; median age was 71 (interquartile range: 64, 78) years. Patients were from Europe (47.1%), North America (22.5%), Asia (20.3%), Latin America (6.0%), and the Middle East/Africa (4.0%). Most had high stroke risk (CHA2DS2-VASc [Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age  6575 years, Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke, Vascular disease, Age 65 to 74 years, Sex category] score  652; 86.1%); 13.9% had moderate risk (CHA2DS2-VASc = 1). Overall, 79.9% received oral anticoagulants, of whom 47.6% received NOAC and 32.3% vitamin K antagonists (VKA); 12.1% received antiplatelet agents; 7.8% received no antithrombotic treatment. For comparison, the proportion of phase 1 patients (of N = 1,063 all eligible) prescribed VKA was 32.8%, acetylsalicylic acid 41.7%, and no therapy 20.2%. In Europe in phase 2, treatment with NOAC was more common than VKA (52.3% and 37.8%, respectively); 6.0% of patients received antiplatelet treatment; and 3.8% received no antithrombotic treatment. In North America, 52.1%, 26.2%, and 14.0% of patients received NOAC, VKA, and antiplatelet drugs, respectively; 7.5% received no antithrombotic treatment. NOAC use was less common in Asia (27.7%), where 27.5% of patients received VKA, 25.0% antiplatelet drugs, and 19.8% no antithrombotic treatment. Conclusions The baseline data from GLORIA-AF phase 2 demonstrate that in newly diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients, NOAC have been highly adopted into practice, becoming more frequently prescribed than VKA in Europe and North America. Worldwide, however, a large proportion of patients remain undertreated, particularly in Asia and North America. (Global Registry on Long-Term Oral Antithrombotic Treatment in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation [GLORIA-AF]; NCT01468701

    Operation and performance of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker in LHC Run 2