481 research outputs found

    Results of charged pions cross-section in proton carbon interaction at 31 GeV/c measured with the NA61/SHINE detector

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    Among other goals, the NA61/SHINE (SHINE=SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) detector at CERN SPS aims at precision hadro-production measurements to characterise the neutrino beam of the T2K experiment at J-PARC. These measurements are performed using a 31 GeV/c proton beam produced at the SPS with a thin carbon target and a full T2K replica target. Spectra of charged pion inclusive inelastic cross section were obtained from pilot data collected in 2007 1 with a 2 cm thick target (4% of the interaction length). The SHINE detector and its particle identification capabilities are described and the analysis techniques are briefly discussed

    The WA105-3x1x1 m3 dual phase LAr-TPC demonstrator

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    The dual phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) is the state-of-art technology for neutrino detection thanks to its superb 3D tracking and calorimetry performance. Its main feature is the charge amplification in gas argon which provides excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Electrons produced in the liquid argon are extracted in the gas phase. Here, a readout plane based on Large Electron Multiplier detectors provides amplification of the charges before its collection onto an anode with strip readout. The charge amplification enables constructing fully homoge- nous giant LAr-TPCs with tuneable gain, excellent charge imaging performance and increased sensitivity to low energy events. Following a staged approach the WA105 collaboration is con- structing a dual phase LAr-TPC with an active volume of 3x1x1m3 that will soon be tested with cosmic rays. Its construction and operation aims to test scalable solutions for the crucial aspects of this technology: ultra high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, large area dual phase charge readout system in several square meter scale, and accessible cold front-end electronics. A mile- stone was achieved last year in the completion of the 24 m3 cryostat that hosts the TPC. This is the first cryostat based on membrane technology to be constructed at CERN and is therefore also an important step towards the realisation of the upcoming protoDUNE detectors. The 3x1x1m3 dual phase LAr-TPC will be described in and we will report on the latest construction progress

    Preliminary results of charged pions cross-section in proton carbon interaction at 30 GeV measured with the NA61/SHINE detector

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    As the intensity of neutrino beams produced at accelerators increases, important systematic errors due to poor knowledge of production cross sections for pions and kaons arise. Among other goals, the NA61/SHINE (SHINE=SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) detector at CERN SPS aims at precision hadro-production measurements to characterise the neutrino beam of the T2K experiment at J-PARC. These measurements are performed using a 30GeV proton beam produced at the SPS with a thin carbon target and a full T2K replica target. Preliminary spectra of π+\pi^{+} and π−\pi^{-} inclusive cross section were obtained from pilot data collected in 2007 with a 2 cm thick target. After a description of the SHINE detector and its particle identification capabilities, results from three different analysis are discussed

    Synthesis of Bivalent Lactosides Based on Terephthalamide, N,N0-Diglucosylterephthalamide, and Glycophane Scaffolds and Assessment of Their Inhibitory Capacity on Medically Relevant Lectins

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    Glycan recognition by lectins initiates clinically relevant processes such as toxin binding or tumor spread. Thus, the development of potent inhibitors has a medical perspective. Toward this goal, we report the synthesis of both rigid and flexible bivalent lactosides on scaffolds that include secondary and tertiary terephthalamides and N,N0-diglucosylterephthalamides. Construction of these compounds involved Schmidt-Michel glycosidation, and amide coupling or Ugi reactions of relevant glycosyl amines in key steps. A glycocluster based on a rigid glycophane was also prepared from coupling of a glucuronic acid derivative and p-xylylenediamine with subsequent ring-closing metathesis. Finally, a more flexible bivalent lactoside was produced from lactosyl azide with use of the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Distances between lactose residues were analyzed computationally as were their orientations for the relatively rigid subset of compounds. Distinct spacing properties were revealed by varying the structure of the scaffold or by varying the location of the lactose residue on the scaffold. To relate these features to bioactivity a plant toxin and human adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins were used as sensors in three types of assay, i.e. measuring agglutination of erythrocytes, binding to glycans of a surface-immobilized glycoprotein, or binding to human cells.Methodologically, the common hemeagglutination assaywas found to be considerably less sensitive than both solid-phase and cell assays. The bivalent compounds were less effective at interfering with glycoprotein binding to the plant toxin than to human lectins. Significantly, a constrained compound was identified that displayed selectivity in its inhibitory potency between galectin-3 and its proteolytically processed form. Conversely, compounds with a high degree of flexibility showed notable ability to protect human cells fromplant toxin binding. The applied conjugation chemistry thus is compatiblewith the long-termaim to produce potent and selective lectin inhibitors

    Assessment of drinking water quality at the tap using fluorescence spectroscopy

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    Treated drinking water may become contaminated while travelling in the distribution system on the way to consumers. Elevated dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the tap relative to the water leaving the treatment plant is a potential indicator of contamination, and can be measured sensitively, inexpensively and potentially on-line via fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. Detecting elevated DOM requires potential contamination events to be distinguished from natural fluctuations in the system, but how much natural variation to expect in a stable distribution system is unknown. In this study, relationships between DOM optical properties, microbial indicator organisms and trace elements were investigated for households connected to a biologically-stable drinking water distribution system. Across the network, humic-like fluorescence intensities showed limited variation (RSD = 3.5-4.4%), with half of measured variation explained by interactions with copper. After accounting for quenching by copper, fluorescence provided a very stable background signal (RSD

    Phenylenediamine-based bivalent glycocyclophanes: synthesis and analysis of the influence of scaffold rigidity and ligand spacing on lectin binding in cell systems with different glycomic profiles

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    The conjugation of carbohydrates to synthetic scaffolds has the goal of preparing potent inhibitors of lectin binding. We herein report the synthesis of a panel of bivalent compounds (cyclophane and terephthalamide-derivatives) then used to establish the influence of scaffold flexibility on respective inhibitory potency in a medically relevant test system. Synthetic routes to two phenylenediamine-based glycocyclophanes involving Ugi reactions of glucuronic acid derivatives and subsequent ring closing metathesis are described, as are improvements for producing terephthalamide-based carbohydrate carriers. Assays were performed with human tumour cells measuring quantitatively the influence of the test compounds on fluorescent surface staining by labelled lectins. Biological evaluation using two different lines of cancer cells as well as cells with known alterations in the glycomic profile (cells treated with an inhibitor of glycan processing and a glycosylation mutant) reduced the risk of generating premature generalizations regarding inhibitor potency. Bioactivity relative to free mannose was invariably determined for the synthetic compounds. A clear trend for enhanced inhibitory properties for macrocyclic compounds compared to non-macrocyclic derivatives was discerned for one type of glycocyclophane. Herein we also document the impact of altering the spacing between the mannose residues, altering cell surface ligand density and cell-type reactivity. The applied strategy for the cell assays is proposed to be of general importance in the quest to identify medically relevant lectin inhibitors

    Towards the integration and development of a cross-European research network and infrastructure:the DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub

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    To address major societal challenges and enhance cooperation in research across Europe, the European Commission has initiated and facilitated ‘joint programming’. Joint programming is a process by which Member States engage in defining, developing and implementing a common strategic research agenda, based on a shared vision of how to address major societal challenges that no Member State is capable of resolving independently. Setting up a Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) should also contribute to avoiding unnecessary overlap and repetition of research, and enable and enhance the development and use of standardised research methods, procedures and data management. The Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub (KH) is the first act of the European JPI ‘A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life’. The objective of DEDIPAC is to contribute to improving understanding of the determinants of dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. DEDIPAC KH is a multi-disciplinary consortium of 46 consortia and organisations supported by joint programming grants from 12 countries across Europe. The work is divided into three thematic areas: (I) assessment and harmonisation of methods for future research, surveillance and monitoring, and for evaluation of interventions and policies; (II) determinants of dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours across the life course and in vulnerable groups; and (III) evaluation and benchmarking of public health and policy interventions aimed at improving dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. In the first three years, DEDIPAC KH will organise, develop, share and harmonise expertise, methods, measures, data and other infrastructure. This should further European research and improve the broad multi-disciplinary approach needed to study the interactions between multilevel determinants in influencing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Insights will be translated into more effective interventions and policies for the promotion of healthier behaviours and more effective monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of such intervention

    Round Robin Testing: Exploring Experimental Uncertainties through a Multifacility Comparison of a Hinged Raft Wave Energy Converter

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    The EU H2020 MaRINET2 project has a goal to improve the quality, robustness and accuracy of physical modelling and associated testing practices for the offshore renewable energy sector. To support this aim, a round robin scale physical modelling test programme was conducted to deploy a common wave energy converter at four wave basins operated by MaRINET2 partners. Test campaigns were conducted at each facility to a common specification and test matrix, providing the unique opportunity for intercomparison between facilities and working practices. A nonproprietary hinged raft, with a nominal scale of 1:25, was tested under a set of 12 irregular sea states. This allowed for an assessment of power output, hinge angles, mooring loads, and six-degree-of-freedom motions. The key outcome to be concluded from the results is that the facilities performed consistently, with the majority of variation linked to differences in sea state calibration. A variation of 5–10% in mean power was typical and was consistent with the variability observed in the measured significant wave heights. The tank depth (which varied from 2–5 m) showed remarkably little influence on the results, although it is noted that these tests used an aerial mooring system with the geometry unaffected by the tank depth. Similar good agreement was seen in the heave, surge, pitch and hinge angle responses. In order to maintain and improve the consistency across laboratories, we make recommendations on characterising and calibrating the tank environment and stress the importance of the device–facility physical interface (the aerial mooring in this case).</jats:p

    Particle Vibration, an instrument to study particle accumulation structures on board the International Space Station

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    The scientific and technological aspects of the PARTICLE VIBRATION Project (also known as T-PAOLA i.e. "Thermovibrationally-driven Particle self-Assembly and Ordering mechanisms in Low grAvity") are described in detail. The project relies on the combined use of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument (SODI), a Class-2 device developed by ESA for scientific experiments in the field of fluids on board the International Space Station, and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), a Class-1 general purpose facility under the responsibility of NASA. The related modular architecture has recently been expanded under the umbrella of new scientific research funded by the UK Space Agency to allow for a novel class of experiments dealing with multiphase (solid-liquid) flows. The final aim of this microgravity project is the identification of new dispersed-phase self-organization phenomena driven by the application of vibrations and the ensuing development of new contactless particle manipulations strategies. In the present paper, emphasis is given to the related space hardware and software, the experiment protocol, the ground tests and procedures and all the adaptations that had to be implemented to overcome a number of technological and physical issues, both general and system-specific
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