681 research outputs found

    Visualizing a Spatial Archive: GIS, Digital Humanities, and Relational Space

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    Geography matters! In any reading of literature or history, paper or digital, our imaginations are often invoked through a spatial sense. In a country where the importance of dinnseanchas, or “place lore,” remains a significant contemporary component, a reading of place regularly features across the multiple strands of Irish Studies.[1] From Heaney’s poetry to the novels of Sebastian Barry, place and a sense of place are ever-present in how stories and literary ideas are presented, received, and interpreted.[2] History too, in its archives and methods of study, has always happened somewhere and in that sense has always been explicitly emplaced. Given the broad theme of this issue—querying whether Digital Humanities offers better ways of realizing traditional Humanities goals or has the capacity to change understandings of Humanities goals altogether—it is useful to consider this question empirically against the increase in new digital forms of spatial information.

    A Continuous Improvement Journey in the Higher Education Sector: A Case Study of a University in Ireland

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    The paper’s purpose is to contribute to a developing literature in relation to Continuous Improvement (CI), incorporating Lean Six Sigma (LSS) in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). This paper follows on from a previous study which focused on the initial steps taken by an Irish university on its CI journey by discussing the next steps, detailing the findings from these

    A Test Method for Optimal Micro-screen Drum Filter Selection

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    In order to meet increasing demand for seafood worldwide Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS) are frequently used. These systems are susceptible to contamination by waste matter including faecal material in the water. It is imperative that this material is removed from the system. The maintenance of good water quality is a pre-requisite to the success of the operation. Negligence in this area will adversely affect animal growth rates and also the economic performance of the system. Micro-screen drum filters are a popular solution for the removal of this material (Cripps, Simon J. and Bergheim, Asbjørn., 2000). These screens are nominally rated by their screen aperture size measured in microns. A common issue with the selection of this equipment is in relation to the many variables that influence filter performance. For simplicity, vendors have rationalised selection criteria for filters to the flow capacity at each end of the potential solids loading spectrum, without any reference to a specific culture species. This paper outlines a technique for accurate micro-screen drum filter selection for site and species specific applications using simple equipment, allowing the identification of an optimal filtration solution, in terms of cost and filtration performance. It also evaluates the potential of cake filtration for increased filter mechanical efficiency performance, Highlights This paper sets out to establish; Optimal drum filter selection Particle size distribution of suspended solids in a RAS Feasibility and effectiveness of cake filtration in mechanical efficiency and flow rate terms. It is envisaged that this new methodology can be adopted by aquaculturists to address the need within the aquaculture industry for documented and optimised species specific filtration solutions

    A holistic approach to facility protection from adventitious agents – A case study

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    The Eli Lilly biologics manufacturing facility in Kinsale, Ireland has been operational since 2010 with a 100% cell culture contamination control success rate. The presentation will review the holistic approach to facility protection from adventitious agents that underpins this success including: The risk assessment approach to points of entry and management via detectability and control measures The approach to personnel training that considers human factors, increased vigilance and event simulations following strategies that are used in chemical synthesis process safety The presentation will then focus on control of adventitious virus. The talk will briefly comment on the early warning measures via use of an in process qPCR assay and then move on to place significant emphasis on the application of High Temperature Short Term (HTST) treatment for culture media. The Proof of Concept studies showing applicability to certain media classes and challenges for others will be discussed and then a case study showing detailed laboratory support studies for a number of products will be presented. Finally the challenges of application to clinical and commercial products will be discussed

    Impacts of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative on socio-economic inequalities in breakfast consumption among 9–11-year-old schoolchildren in Wales

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    Objectives - Universal interventions may widen or narrow inequalities if disproportionately effective among higher or lower socio-economic groups. The present paper examines impacts of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales on inequalities in children's dietary behaviours and cognitive functioning.<p></p> Design Cluster - randomised controlled trial. Responses were linked to free school meal (FSM) entitlement via the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage databank. Impacts on inequalities were evaluated using weighted school-level regression models with interaction terms for intervention × whole-school percentage FSM entitlement and intervention × aggregated individual FSM entitlement. Individual-level regression models included interaction terms for intervention × individual FSM entitlement.<p></p> Setting - Fifty-five intervention and fifty-six wait-list control primary schools.<p></p> Subjects - Approximately 4500 children completed measures of dietary behaviours and cognitive tests at baseline and 12-month follow-up.<p></p> Results School-level models indicated that children in intervention schools ate a greater number of healthy items for breakfast than children in control schools (b = 0·25; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·44), with larger increases observed in more deprived schools (interaction term b = 1·76; 95 % CI 0·36, 3·16). An interaction between intervention and household-level deprivation was not significant. Despite no main effects on breakfast skipping, a significant interaction was observed, indicating declines in breakfast skipping in more deprived schools (interaction term b = −0·07; 95 % CI −0·15, −0·00) and households (OR = 0·67; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·98). No significant influence on inequality was observed for the remaining outcomes.<p></p> Conclusions - Universal breakfast provision may reduce socio-economic inequalities in consumption of healthy breakfast items and breakfast skipping. There was no evidence of intervention-generated inequalities in any outcomes

    Neutral genomic microevolution of a recently emerged pathogen, salmonella enterica serovar agona

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    Salmonella enterica serovar Agona has caused multiple food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis since it was first isolated in 1952. We analyzed the genomes of 73 isolates from global sources, comparing five distinct outbreaks with sporadic infections as well as food contamination and the environment. Agona consists of three lineages with minimal mutational diversity: only 846 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have accumulated in the non-repetitive, core genome since Agona evolved in 1932 and subsequently underwent a major population expansion in the 1960s. Homologous recombination with other serovars of S. enterica imported 42 recombinational tracts (360 kb) in 5/143 nodes within the genealogy, which resulted in 3,164 additional SNPs. In contrast to this paucity of genetic diversity, Agona is highly diverse according to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which is used to assign isolates to outbreaks. PFGE diversity reflects a highly dynamic accessory genome associated with the gain or loss (indels) of 51 bacteriophages, 10 plasmids, and 6 integrative conjugational elements (ICE/IMEs), but did not correlate uniquely with outbreaks. Unlike the core genome, indels occurred repeatedly in independent nodes (homoplasies), resulting in inaccurate PFGE genealogies. The accessory genome contained only few cargo genes relevant to infection, other than antibiotic resistance. Thus, most of the genetic diversity within this recently emerged pathogen reflects changes in the accessory genome, or is due to recombination, but these changes seemed to reflect neutral processes rather than Darwinian selection. Each outbreak was caused by an independent clade, without universal, outbreak-associated genomic features, and none of the variable genes in the pan-genome seemed to be associated with an ability to cause outbreaks

    Ferroelectric phase transition and the lattice thermal conductivity of Pb1-xGexTe alloys

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    We show how tuning the proximity to the soft optical mode phase transition via chemical composition affects the lattice thermal conductivity κ of Pb1-xGexTe alloys. Using first-principles virtual-crystal simulations, we find that the anharmonic contribution to κ is minimized at the phase transition due to the maximized acoustic-optical anharmonic interaction. Mass disorder significantly lowers and flattens the dip in the anharmonic κ over a wide composition range, thus shifting the κ minimum away from the phase transition. The total κ and its anharmonic contribution vary continuously between the rocksalt and rhombohedral phases as expected for the second-order phase transition. The actual phase and its strength of resonant bonding play a less prominent role in reducing the κ of Pb1-xGexTe alloys than the proximity to the phase transition and the atomic mass. Our results show that alloys with soft optical mode transitions are promising materials for achieving low thermal conductivity and possibly high thermoelectric efficiency

    From Molecular Classification to Targeted Therapeutics: The Changing Face of Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Gastroesophageal Cancer

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    Histological classification of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma for esophageal cancer or using the Lauren classification for intestinal and diffuse type gastric cancer has limited clinical utility in the management of advanced disease. Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1) or mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) were identified many years ago but given their rarity, the identification of these molecular alterations does not substantially impact treatment in the advanced setting. Recent molecular profiling studies of upper GI tumors have added to our knowledge of the underlying biology but have not led to an alternative classification system which can guide clinician’s therapeutic decisions. Recently the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has proposed four subtypes of gastric cancer dividing tumors into those positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite unstable tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Unfortunately to date, many phase III clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents have failed to meet their survival endpoints due to their use in unselected populations. Future clinical trials should utilize molecular profiling of individual tumors in order to determine the optimal use of targeted therapies in preselected patients
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