90 research outputs found

    Photon spectroscopy of heavy quarkonia

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    We have studied the inclusive photon spectrum in [Special characters omitted.] (2 S ), Υ(2 S ), and Υ(3 S ) decays using the CLEO III detector. We present the most precise measurements of electric dipole (E1) photon transition rates and photon energies for [Special characters omitted.] (2 S ) [arrow right] γχ cJ (1 P ), Υ(2 S ) [arrow right] γχ cJ (1 P ), and Υ(3 S ) [arrow right] γχ bJ (2 P ) ( J = 0, 1, 2). The rate for rare E1 transition, Υ(3 S ) [arrow right] γχ b0 (1 P ) is measured for the first time. We also confirm the hindered magnetic dipole (M1) transition, [Special characters omitted.] (2 S ) [arrow right] γη c (1 S ). However, the direct M1 transition [Special characters omitted.] (2 S ) [arrow right] γη c (2 S ) observed by the Crystal Ball as a narrow peak at a photon energy of 91 MeV is not found in our data. We have also searched for the spin-singlet bottomonium states η b (1 S ) and η b (2 S ) via the hindered magnetic dipole (M1) photon transitions Υ(3 S ) [arrow right] γη b (1 S ), Υ(3 S ) [arrow right] γη b (2 S ); and Υ(2 S ) [arrow right] γη b (1 S ). No evidence for such transitions are found. We set upper limits on the branching ratios which rule out some of the theoretical calculations

    OMODA Sonoe. On Solidarity

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    書評Book review

    Prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and its association with milking practices in an intensive dairy production region of Uganda

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    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) in Mbarara District, an intensive dairy production region of Uganda where handmilking is dominant. In 30 farms, herd-level milking practices and SCM prevalence were studied. The SCM prevalences were 68.6% (417/608, 95% confidence interval (CI): 64.9–72.2%) and 39.2% (946/2,411, 37.3–41.2%) at the cow- and quarter-levels, respectively. A preventive factor for SCM was cow calmness at the end of milking (OR: 0.20, 95%CI: 0.05–0.79, P=0.021); a risk factor was rough teat-end (OR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.14–2.68, P=0.011). Good cow hygiene was negatively associated with environmental mastitis (P=0.002). Appropriate hand-milking practices that avoid teat damage are expected to reduce SCM in Uganda

    Emergence of realism: Enhanced visual artistry and high accuracy of visual numerosity representation after left prefrontal damage

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    Over the last two decades, evidence of enhancement of drawing and painting skills due to focal prefrontal damage has accumulated. It is of special interest that most artworks created by such patients were highly realistic ones, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be understood. Our hypothesis is that enhanced tendency of realism was associated with accuracy of visual numerosity representation, which has been shown to be mediated predominantly by right parietal functions. Here, we report a case of left prefrontal stroke, where the patient showed enhancement of artistic skills of realistic painting after the onset of brain damage. We investigated cognitive, functional and aesthetic characteristics of the patient\u27s visual artistry and visual numerosity representation. Neuropsychological tests revealed impaired executive function after the stroke. Despite that, the patient\u27s visual artistry related to realism was rather promoted across the onset of brain damage as demonstrated by blind evaluation of the paintings by professional art reviewers. On visual numerical cognition tasks, the patient showed higher performance in comparison with age- matched healthy controls. These results paralleled increased perfusion in the right parietal cortex including the precuneus and intraparietal sulcus. Our data provide new insight into mechanisms underlying change in artistic style due to focal prefrontal lesion

    Hybrid Breeding Skewed the Allelic Frequencies of Molecular Variants Derived from the Restorer-of-fertility 1 Locus for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

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    Hybrid breeding of crops may involve the selection of reproductive traits, such as cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), whose expression is controlled by cytoplasmic and nuclear genes. Intense selection of a single cytoplasm and the consequent lack of cytoplasmic divergence is a potential danger, the so-called genetic vulnerability. However, little is known about the relationship between hybrid breeding and diversity of nuclear genes that suppress the expression of CMS (Rf). Despite the multi-allelic nature of Rf at the molecular level, a common Rf variant was previously found to predominate in sugar beet maintainer lines that were selected for a specific genotype for propagating the CMS line. The question was raised as to the frequency of the common Rf variant before the hybrid-breeding era. As the origin of Japanese maintainer lines can be genealogically traced back to seven non-hybrid cultivars, we investigated the allelic diversity of Rf in the seven cultivars using molecular markers. Our results indicated that Rf diversity differs among the cultivars but exceeds that of the maintainers in total, and the common variant in the maintainers is infrequent in all the cultivars. Therefore, maintainer selection has involved selecting a small number of Rf variants in the founder population in Japan