14 research outputs found

    The Significance of Indigenous Banks to Economic Development in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of Harare Metropolitan

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    The main objective of this study is to ascertain the significance of indigenous banks to the economic development of Zimbabwe because any economy requires the existence of a banking system to ensure the mobilization of excess money, as well as guiding money towards the pursuit of efficient economic activities that promote economic development. Banks as financial intermediaries channel funds from those who have excess money for investing at an interest to those who want to borrow at an interest, creating a lender borrower relationship. They also provide financial services that reduce the cost of moving funds between borrowers and lenders, leading to a more efficient allocation of resources and faster economic growth. Thus, banks are an essential component of modern economies, not only in terms of turnover, but also as primary financiers. 100 respondents were selected from 8 indigenous banks and 400 bank users were also selected using purposive sampling techniques. The data collected from the respondents was analyzed using mixed methods. Furthermore, secondary data was obtained from journals, reports and relevant publications. The findings of the study revealed that indigenous banks help entrepreneurs in different industrial sectors to gain access to capital which also contributes to the economic development of Zimbabwe. The study also revealed that indigenous banks inculcate the habit of banking in rural people and other low income groups among other benefits. Hence, there is need for the government to support indigenous banks. Keywords: Financial services sector, Government, Principal regulatory, Financial liberalization, Developing countries, Government, Economic development, Central bank, Indigenous banks, Financial intermediarie

    The significance of industrial clusters to the scottish economy

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    EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceGBUnited Kingdo

    The Significance of Identifying Industrial Clusters; The Case of Scotland

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    Industrial clustering policy is now an integral part of economic development planning in most advanced economies. However, there have been concerns in some quarters over the ability of an industrial cluster-based development strategy to deliver its promised economic benefits and this has been increasingly been blamed on the failure by governments to identify industrial clusters. In a study published in 2001, the DTI identified clusters across the UK based on the comparative scale and significance of industrial sectors. The study identified thirteen industrial clusters in Scotland. However the clusters identified are not a homogeneous set and they seem to vary in terms of their geographic concentration within Scotland. This paper examines the spatial distribution of industries within Scotland, thereby identifying more localised clusters. The study follows as closely as possible the DTI methodology which was used to identify such concentrations of economic activity with particular attention directed towards the thirteen clusters identified by the DTI. The paper concludes with some remarks of the general problem of identifying the existence of industrial clusters.Industrial Clusters, Scottish economy, Travel-to-work areas

    Cost and affordability of non-communicable disease screening, diagnosis and treatment in Kenya: Patient payments in the private and public sectors.

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    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in low- and middle-income countries, including Kenya, disproportionately to the rest of the world. Our objective was to quantify patient payments to obtain NCD screening, diagnosis, and treatment services in the public and private sector in Kenya and evaluate patients' ability to pay for the services.We collected payment data on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, breast and cervical cancer, and respiratory diseases from Kenyatta National Hospital, the main tertiary public hospital, and the Kibera South Health Center-a public outpatient facility, and private sector practitioners and hospitals. We developed detailed treatment frameworks for each NCD and used an itemization cost approach to estimate payments. Patient affordability metrics were derived from Kenyan government surveys and national datasets. Results compare public and private costs in U.S. dollars. NCD screening costs ranged from 4to4 to 36, while diagnostic procedures, particularly for breast and cervical cancer, were substantially more expensive. Annual hypertension medication costs ranged from 26to26 to 234 and 418to418 to 987 in public and private facilities, respectively. Stroke admissions (1,874versus1,874 versus 16,711) and dialysis for chronic kidney disease (5,338versus5,338 versus 11,024) were among the most expensive treatments. Cervical and breast cancer treatment cost for stage III (curative approach) was about 1,500inpublicfacilitiesandmorethan1,500 in public facilities and more than 7,500 in the private facilities. A large proportion of Kenyans aged 15 to 49 years do not have health insurance, which makes NCD services unaffordable for most people given the overall high cost of services relative to income (average household expenditure per adult is $413 per annum).There is substantial variation in patient costs between the public and private sectors. Most NCD diagnosis and treatment costs, even in the public sector, represent a substantial economic burden that can result in catastrophic expenditures