698 research outputs found

    Flexible Models for Solar Sail Control

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    Solar sails employ a unique form of propulsion, gaining momentum from incident and reflected photons. However, the momentum transferred by an individual photon is extremely small. Consequently, a solar sail must have an extremely large surface area and also be extremely light. The flexibility of the sail then must be considered when designing or evaluating control laws. In this paper, solar sail flexibility and its influence on control effectiveness is considered using idealized two-dimensional models to represent physical phenomena rather than a specific design. Differential equations of motion are derived for a distributed parameter model of a flexible solar sail idealized as a rotating central hub with two opposing flexible booms. This idealization is appropriate for solar sail designs in which the vibrational modes of the sail and supporting booms move together allowing the sail mass to be distributed along the booms in the idealized model. A reduced analytical model of the flexible response is considered. Linear feedback torque control is applied at the central hub. Two translational disturbances and a torque disturbance also act at the central hub representing the equivalent effect of deflecting sail shape about a reference line. Transient simulations explore different control designs and their effectiveness for controlling orientation, for reducing flexible motion and for disturbance rejection. A second model also is developed as a two-dimensional "pathfinder" model to calculate the effect of solar sail shape on the resultant thrust, in-plane force and torque at the hub. The analysis is then extended to larger models using the finite element method. The finite element modeling approach is verified by comparing results from a two-dimensional finite element model with those from the analytical model. The utility of the finite element modeling approach for this application is then illustrated through examples based on a full finite element model

    CKM Matrix and Standard-Model CP Violation

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    The currently favored model of CP violation is based on phases in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix describing the weak charge-changing couplings of quarks. The present status of parameters of this matrix is described. Tests of the theory, with particular emphasis on the study of B meson decays, are then noted. Some remarks are made regarding the possible origin of the baryon asymmetry of the universe; the corresponding coupling pattern of the leptons could shed light on the question. Some possibilities for non-standard physics are discussed.Comment: 16 pages, latex, 8 figures. Invited talk at Fourth KEK Topical Conference on Flavour Physics, 29 -- 31 October 1996. To be published in Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.

    Les droits disciplinaires des fonctions publiques : « unification », « harmonisation » ou « distanciation ». A propos de la loi du 26 avril 2016 relative à la déontologie et aux droits et obligations des fonctionnaires

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    The production of tt‾ , W+bb‾ and W+cc‾ is studied in the forward region of proton–proton collisions collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.98±0.02 fb−1 . The W bosons are reconstructed in the decays W→ℓν , where ℓ denotes muon or electron, while the b and c quarks are reconstructed as jets. All measured cross-sections are in agreement with next-to-leading-order Standard Model predictions.The production of ttt\overline{t}, W+bbW+b\overline{b} and W+ccW+c\overline{c} is studied in the forward region of proton-proton collisions collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.98 ±\pm 0.02 \mbox{fb}^{-1}. The WW bosons are reconstructed in the decays WνW\rightarrow\ell\nu, where \ell denotes muon or electron, while the bb and cc quarks are reconstructed as jets. All measured cross-sections are in agreement with next-to-leading-order Standard Model predictions

    Measurement of the (eta c)(1S) production cross-section in proton-proton collisions via the decay (eta c)(1S) -> p(p)over-bar

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    Observation of the B0 → ρ0ρ0 decay from an amplitude analysis of B0 → (π+π−)(π+π−) decays

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    Proton–proton collision data recorded in 2011 and 2012 by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb−1 , are analysed to search for the charmless B0→ρ0ρ0 decay. More than 600 B0→(π+π−)(π+π−) signal decays are selected and used to perform an amplitude analysis, under the assumption of no CP violation in the decay, from which the B0→ρ0ρ0 decay is observed for the first time with 7.1 standard deviations significance. The fraction of B0→ρ0ρ0 decays yielding a longitudinally polarised final state is measured to be fL=0.745−0.058+0.048(stat)±0.034(syst) . The B0→ρ0ρ0 branching fraction, using the B0→ϕK⁎(892)0 decay as reference, is also reported as B(B0→ρ0ρ0)=(0.94±0.17(stat)±0.09(syst)±0.06(BF))×10−6

    A study of CP violation in B-+/- -> DK +/- and B-+/- -> D pi(+/-) decays with D -> (KSK +/-)-K-0 pi(-/+) final states

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    A first study of CP violation in the decay modes B±[KS0K±π]Dh±B^\pm\to [K^0_{\rm S} K^\pm \pi^\mp]_D h^\pm and B±[KS0Kπ±]Dh±B^\pm\to [K^0_{\rm S} K^\mp \pi^\pm]_D h^\pm, where hh labels a KK or π\pi meson and DD labels a D0D^0 or D0\overline{D}^0 meson, is performed. The analysis uses the LHCb data set collected in pppp collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb1^{-1}. The analysis is sensitive to the CP-violating CKM phase γ\gamma through seven observables: one charge asymmetry in each of the four modes and three ratios of the charge-integrated yields. The results are consistent with measurements of γ\gamma using other decay modes

    Study of the rare B-s(0) and B-0 decays into the pi(+) pi(-) mu(+) mu(-) final state

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    A search for the rare decays Bs0π+πμ+μB_s^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- and B0π+πμ+μB^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- is performed in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb1^{-1} collected by the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Decay candidates with pion pairs that have invariant mass in the range 0.5-1.3 GeV/c2c^2 and with muon pairs that do not originate from a resonance are considered. The first observation of the decay Bs0π+πμ+μB_s^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- and the first evidence of the decay B0π+πμ+μB^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- are obtained and the branching fractions are measured to be B(Bs0π+πμ+μ)=(8.6±1.5(stat)±0.7(syst)±0.7(norm))×108\mathcal{B}(B_s^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^-)=(8.6\pm 1.5\,({\rm stat}) \pm 0.7\,({\rm syst})\pm 0.7\,({\rm norm}))\times 10^{-8}