4,223 research outputs found

    Characterization of G -Semigroup by Intuitionistic N-Fuzzy Set (INFS) and its level set

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    Some characterizations of G -Semigroup by intuitionistic N-fuzzy sets have been given here. The concept of intuitionistic N-fuzzy set (INFS) and its level set has been applied to G -semigroup. The notions of intuitionistic N-fuzzy G -subsemigroup and intuitionistic N-fuzzy G - ideals (left, right, lateral, quasi, and bi) have been introduced and characterized by intuitionistic N-fuzzy sets

    Health Care Services and Government Spending in Pakistan

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    The study has been carried out to measure the incidence of government spending on health in Pakistan at provincial, both rural and urban level; using the primary data of the Pakistan Social Standard Living Measures Survey (PSLM), 2004-05, and by employing the three-step Benefit Incidence Approach (BIA) methodology. The paper reviews the national policies emphasising health services as well as the trend in access to and public sector spending on health care facilities in Pakistan. The study explores the inequalities in resource distribution and service provision against the government health expenditures. The rural areas of Pakistan are the more disadvantaged in the provision of the health care facilities. The expenditures in health sectors are overall regressive in rural Pakistan as well as at provincial and regional levels. Mother and Child subhead is regressive in Punjab and General Hospitals and Clinics are regressive in all provinces. Only the Preventive Measures and health facilities sub-sector is progressive in Pakistan. Public health expenditures are pro-rich in Pakistan.health, Expenditure, Public Policy, Gini, Concentration Coefficient, Mother and Child, Preventive Measures, Hospital and Clinics

    Some Nonlinear Exponential Smoothing Models are Unstable

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    This paper discusses the instability of eleven nonlinear state space models that underly exponential smoothing. Hyndman et al. (2002) proposed a framework of 24 state space models for exponential smoothing, including the well-known simple exponential smoothing, Holt's linear and Holt-Winters' additive and multiplicative methods. This was extended to 30 models with Taylor's (2003) damped multiplicative methods. We show that eleven of these 30 models are unstable, having infinite forecast variances. The eleven models are those with additive errors and either multiplicative trend or multiplicative seasonality, as well as the models with multiplicative errors, multiplicative trend and additive seasonality. The multiplicative Holt-Winters' model with additive errors is among the eleven unstable models. We conclude that: (1) a model with a multiplicative trend or a multiplicative seasonal component should also have a multiplicative error; and (2) a multiplicative trend should not be mixed with additive seasonality.Exponential smoothing, forecast variance, nonlinear models, prediction intervals, stability, state space models.

    Health Care Services and Government Spending in Pakistan

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    The study has been carried out to measure the incidence of government spending on health in Pakistan at provincial, both rural and urban level; using the primary data of the Pakistan Social Standard Living Measures Survey (PSLM), 2004-05, and by employing the three-step Benefit Incidence Approach (BIA) methodology. The paper reviews the national policies emphasising health services as well as the trend in access to and public sector spending on health care facilities in Pakistan. The study explores the inequalities in resource distribution and service provision against the government health expenditures. The rural areas of Pakistan are the more disadvantaged in the provision of the health care facilities. The expenditures in health sectors are overall regressive in rural Pakistan as well as at provincial and regional levels. Mother and Child subhead is regressive in Punjab and General Hospitals and Clinics are regressive in all provinces. Only the Preventive Measures and health facilities sub-sector is progressive in Pakistan. Public health expenditures are pro-rich in Pakistan.Health, Expenditure, Public Policy, Gini, Concentration Coefficient, Mother and Child, Preventive Measures, Hospital and Clinics

    Public Provision of Education and Government Spending in Pakistan

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    The study has been carried out to measure the incidence of government spending on education in Pakistan at the provincial (both rural and urban) level, using the primary data of the Pakistan Social Standard Living Measures Survey (PSLM), 2004-2005, and by employing the three-step Benefit Incidence Approach methodology. The paper reviews the national policies emphasising provision of education in Pakistan, as well as the trend in coverage and public sector spending on education facilities in Pakistan. The study examines the inequalities in resource distribution and service provision in relation to the government education expenditure. The rural areas of Pakistan are the more disadvantaged in the provision of the education facilities. Overall, the expenditure on the education sector is progressive, both at the regional and the provincial levels. However, variation exists in the shares of different income groups’ benefit from the provision of educational facilities created by public expenditure.Education, Public Expenditure, Public Policy, Gini Coefficient, Concentration Coefficient, Benefit Incidence Approach

    Public Provision of Education and Government Spending in Pakistan

    Get PDF
    The study has been carried out to measure the incidence of government spending on education in Pakistan at the provincial (both rural and urban) level, using the primary data of the Pakistan Social Standard Living Measures Survey (PSLM), 2004-2005, and by employing the three-step Benefit Incidence Approach methodology. The paper reviews the national policies emphasising provision of education in Pakistan, as well as the trend in coverage and public sector spending on education facilities in Pakistan. The study examines the inequalities in resource distribution and service provision in relation to the government education expenditure. The rural areas of Pakistan are the more disadvantaged in the provision of the education facilities. Overall, the expenditure on the education sector is progressive, both at the regional and the provincial levels. However, variation exists in the shares of different income groups benefit from the provision of educational facilities created by public expenditure.education, public expenditure, Public Policy, Gini Coefficient, Concentration Coefficient, Benefit Incidence Approach

    Interval-valued fuzzy ku-ideals of ku-algebras

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    In this paper, we introduced the notion of interval-valued fuzzy KU-ideals of KU-algebras and some related properties are investigated. We proved that U is a KU-ideal if and only if the interval-valued fuzzy subset is an interval-valued fuzzy KU-ideal of a KU-algebra for e-
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