4,726 research outputs found

    Chris Christie

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    Transverse instability of plane wave soliton solutions of the Novikov-Veselov equation

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    The Novikov-Veselov (NV) equation is a dispersive (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation that generalizes the (1+1)-dimensional Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation. This paper considers the stability of plane wave soliton solutions of the NV equation to transverse perturbations. To investigate the behavior of the perturbations, a hybrid semi-implicit/spectral numerical scheme was developed, applicable to other nonlinear PDE systems. Numerical simulations of the evolution of transversely perturbed plane wave solutions are presented. In particular, it is established that plane wave soliton solutions are not stable for transverse perturbations

    Design and control of a collision-resilient aerial vehicle with an icosahedron tensegrity structure

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    We present the tensegrity aerial vehicle, a design of collision-resilient rotor robots with icosahedron tensegrity structures. The tensegrity aerial vehicles can withstand high-speed impacts and resume operation after collisions. To guide the design process of these aerial vehicles, we propose a model-based methodology that predicts the stresses in the structure with a dynamics simulation and selects components that can withstand the predicted stresses. Meanwhile, an autonomous re-orientation controller is created to help the tensegrity aerial vehicles resume flight after collisions. The re-orientation controller can rotate the vehicles from arbitrary orientations on the ground to ones easy for takeoff. With collision resilience and re-orientation ability, the tensegrity aerial vehicles can operate in cluttered environments without complex collision-avoidance strategies. Moreover, by adopting an inertial navigation strategy of replacing flight with short hops to mitigate the growth of state estimation error, the tensegrity aerial vehicles can conduct short-range operations without external sensors. These capabilities are validated by a test of an experimental tensegrity aerial vehicle operating with only onboard inertial sensors in a previously-unknown forest.Comment: 12 pages, 16 figure

    Soil Salinity Abatement Following Hurricane Ike

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    In September 2008 Hurricane Ike hit the Texas Gulf Coast with a force stronger than the category 2 storm at which it was rated. With a 3.8 m (12.5 ft) storm surge, the agricultural industry in the area was devastated. The goal of this research was to determine the length of time required to reduce the salt levels brought by the storm surge to near pre-hurricane levels. To do this, four sets of samples were taken across two years and analyzed for salinity using the saturated paste extract method. The initial salt levels in November 2008 had an electrical conductivity (ECe) of the inundated soils as high as 26.7 dS/m. Fifty-four percent of the soils sampled in the 0-15 cm horizons and 9% in the 15-30 cm horizons of the edge area had an ECe >= 4 dS/m. In the surge area 79% of the soils sampled in the 0-15 cm horizons and 30% in the 15-30 cm horizons had an ECe >= 4 dS/m. In April 2009, 38% of the soils sampled in the 0-15 cm horizons and 13% in the 15-30 cm horizons of the edge area had an ECe >= 4 dS/m. In the surge area 71% of the soils sampled in the 0-15 cm horizons and 39% in the 15-30 cm horizons had an ECe >= 4 dS/m. By December 2009, none of the soils sampled in the edge area had an ECe >= 4 dS/m. In the surge area 21% of the soils sampled in the 0-15 cm horizons and 33% in the 15-30 cm horizons had an ECe >= 4 dS/m. By October 2010, all soils sampled had leached sufficient salts to be classified as non-saline to very slightly saline soils. Utilizing the November 2008 data set, 28 random samples were selected for exchangeable Na percent (ESP) in order to develop the ESP-SAR (Na adsorption ratio) predictive equation, ESP= 1.19(SAR)^0.82. The SAR-ESP relationship is statistically significant (95% confidence level), with a correlation coefficient of 0.964 (df=26)

    Astromaterials Curation Online Resources for Principal Investigators

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    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation office at NASA Johnson Space Center curates all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples, the most extensive set of astromaterials samples available to the research community worldwide. The office allocates ~1500 individual samples to researchers and students each year and has served the planetary research community for 45+ years. The Astromaterials Curation office provides access to its sample data repository and digital resources to support the research needs of sample investigators and to aid in the selection and request of samples for scientific study. These resources can be found on the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation website at https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov. To better serve our users, we have engaged in several activities to enhance the data available for astromaterials samples, to improve the accessibility and performance of the website, and to address user feedback. We havealso put plans in place for continuing improvements to our existing data products

    Ancient metabolisms of a thermophilic subseafloor bacterium

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    © The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Smith, A. R., Mueller, R., Fisk, M. R., & Colwell, F. S. Ancient metabolisms of a thermophilic subseafloor bacterium. Frontiers in Microbiology, 12, (2021): 764631, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.764631.The ancient origins of metabolism may be rooted deep in oceanic crust, and these early metabolisms may have persisted in the habitable thermal anoxic aquifer where conditions remain similar to those when they first appeared. The Wood–Ljungdahl pathway for acetogenesis is a key early biosynthetic pathway with the potential to influence ocean chemistry and productivity, but its contemporary role in oceanic crust is not well established. Here, we describe the genome of a novel acetogen from a thermal suboceanic aquifer olivine biofilm in the basaltic crust of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) whose genome suggests it may utilize an ancient chemosynthetic lifestyle. This organism encodes the genes for the complete canonical Wood–Ljungdahl pathway, but is potentially unable to use sulfate and certain organic carbon sources such as lipids and carbohydrates to supplement its energy requirements, unlike other known acetogens. Instead, this organism may use peptides and amino acids for energy or as organic carbon sources. Additionally, genes involved in surface adhesion, the import of metallic cations found in Fe-bearing minerals, and use of molecular hydrogen, a product of serpentinization reactions between water and olivine, are prevalent within the genome. These adaptations are likely a reflection of local environmental micro-niches, where cells are adapted to life in biofilms using ancient chemosynthetic metabolisms dependent on H2 and iron minerals. Since this organism is phylogenetically distinct from a related acetogenic group of Clostridiales, we propose it as a new species, Candidatus Acetocimmeria pyornia.Metagenome sequencing was made possible by the Deep Carbon Observatory Census of Deep Life supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and was performed at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA, United States). This work was funded by NASA grant NNX08AO22G and a graduate fellowship from the NSF Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations. The flow cells were funded under J0972A from the U.S. Science Support Program of Joint Oceanographic Institutions

    A Bound on the Energy Loss of Partons in Nuclei

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    We derive a quantum mechanical upper bound on the amount of radiative energy loss suffered by high energy quarks and gluons in nuclear matter. The bound shows that the nuclear suppression observed in quarkonium production at high xFx_F cannot be explained in terms of energy loss of the initial or final parton states. We also argue that no nuclear suppression is expected in the photoproduction of light hadrons at large xFx_F.Comment: 15 pages, 1 figure included as a Postscript file, phyzzx.te

    Using intervention analysis to evaluate the trends in release rates of recreational fisheries following extensive management changes

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    Changes to management of a fisheries resource are often required to ensure ongoing sustainability. However, such changes can sometimes lead to unintended effects such as increased release rates and associated post-release mortality. These effects may be highly variable between species and areas. Recreational fishing management changes were introduced on the west coast of Australia in 2009/10 to recover stocks of demersal scalefish. Key changes included reducing mixed species bag limits across management zones and increasing the minimum size limit for one species in some management zones. The restrictive catch limits resulted in increased release rates of key demersal species. However, whether such increases are significant and sustained over time, and thus of management concern, have not been evaluated. We carried out intervention time series analysis to evaluate the impact of management changes on release rates of four key demersal species for the recreational sector in metropolitan and regional management zones covering ∼8° latitude using an 18-year time series of charter recreational fishery data from July 2002 to January 2020. We observed varying responses in release rates by species and zones, the most common of which were a step increase, a ramp and a temporary increase that decayed. These responses may be related to targeted management changes which influenced fisher behaviour, perceived recreational value of some species and recruitment variation. Our study demonstrates that intervention analysis, which has seen limited use in this context, can assist in evaluating the impact of management changes on different species for recreational fisheries
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