63 research outputs found

    Unbiased Proteomic Approach Identifies Unique and Coincidental Plasma Biomarkers in Repetitive mTBI and AD Pathogenesis

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    The relationship between repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is well-recognized. However, the precise nature of how r-mTBI leads to or precipitates AD pathogenesis is currently not understood. Plasma biomarkers potentially provide non-invasive tools for detecting neurological changes in the brain, and can reveal overlaps between long-term consequences of r-mTBI and AD. In this study we address this by generating time-dependent molecular profiles of response to r-mTBI and AD pathogenesis in mouse models using unbiased proteomic analyses. To model AD, we used the well-validated hTau and PSAPP(APP/PS1) mouse models that develop age-related tau and amyloid pathological features, respectively, and our well-established model of r-mTBI in C57BL/6 mice. Plasma were collected at different ages (3, 9, and 15 months-old for hTau and PSAPP mice), encompassing pre-, peri- and post-“onset” of the cognitive and neuropathological phenotypes, or at different timepoints after r-mTBI (24 h, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-injury). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approaches coupled with Tandem Mass Tag labeling technology were applied to develop molecular profiles of protein species that were significantly differentially expressed as a consequence of mTBI or AD. Mixed model ANOVA after Benjamini–Hochberg correction, and a stringent cut-off identified 31 proteins significantly changing in r-mTBI groups over time and, when compared with changes over time in sham mice, 13 of these were unique to the injured mice. The canonical pathways predicted to be modulated by these changes were LXR/RXR activation, production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species and complement systems. We identified 18 proteins significantly changing in PSAPP mice and 19 proteins in hTau mice compared to their wild-type littermates with aging. Six proteins were found to be significantly regulated in all three models, i.e., r-mTBI, hTau, and PSAPP mice compared to their controls. The top canonical pathways coincidently changing in all three models were LXR/RXR activation, and production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. This work suggests potential biomarkers for TBI and AD pathogenesis and for the overlap between these two, and warrant targeted investigation in human populations. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD010664

    Acute or delayed treatment with anatabine improves spatial memory and reduces pathological sequelae at late time-points after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

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    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has chronic and long-term consequences for which there are currently no approved pharmacological treatments. We have previously characterized the chronic neurobehavioral and pathological sequelae of a mouse model of repetitive mild TBI (r-mTBI) through to 2 years post-TBI. Despite the mild nature of the initial insult, secondary injury processes are initiated that involve neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative pathways persisting and progressing for weeks and months post-injury and providing a potential window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. In this study we examined the efficacy of a novel anti-inflammatory compound, anatabine, in modifying outcome after TBI. Our model of r-mTBI involves a series of five mild impacts (midline impact at 5 m/sec, 1 mm strike depth, 200 msec dwell time) with an interval of 48 h. Anatabine treatment was administered starting 30 min after injury and was delivered continuously through drinking water. At 6 months after TBI, anatabine treatment improved spatial memory in injured mice. Nine months after TBI, a cohort of mice was euthanized for pathological analysis that revealed reductions in astroglial (glial fibrillary acid protein, GFAP) and microglial (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, IBA1) responses in treated, injured animals. Treatments for the remaining mice were then crossed-over to assess the effects of late treatment administration and the effects of treatment termination. Nine months following crossover the remaining mice showed no effect of injury on their spatial memory, and whereas pathological analysis showed improvements in mice that had received delayed treatment, corpus callosum IBA1 increased in post-crossover placebo r-mTBI mice. These data demonstrate efficacy of both early and late initiation of treatment with anatabine in improving long term behavioral and pathology outcomes after mild TBI. Future studies will characterize the treatment window, the time course of treatment needed, and the dose needed to achieve therapeutic levels of anatabine in humans after injury

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury in a mouse model produces learning and memory deficits accompanied by histological changes

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    Concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents the most common type of brain injury. However, in contrast with moderate or severe injury, there are currently few non-invasive experimental studies that investigate the cumulative effects of repetitive mTBI using rodent models. Here we describe and compare the behavioral and pathological consequences in a mouse model of single (s-mTBI) or repetitive injury (r-mTBI, five injuries given at 48 h intervals) administered by an electromagnetic controlled impactor. Our results reveal that a single mTBI is associated with transient motor and cognitive deficits as demonstrated by rotarod and the Barnes Maze respectively, whereas r-mTBI results in more significant deficits in both paradigms. Histology revealed no overt cell loss in the hippocampus, although a reactive gliosis did emerge in hippocampal sector CA1 and in the deeper cortical layers beneath the injury site in repetitively injured animals, where evidence of focal injury also was observed in the brainstem and cerebellum. Axonal injury, manifest as amyloid precursor protein immunoreactive axonal profiles, was present in the corpus callosum of both injury groups, though more evident in the r-mTBI animals. Our data demonstrate that this mouse model of mTBI is reproducible, simple, and noninvasive, with behavioral impairment after a single injury and increasing deficits after multiple injuries accompanied by increased focal and diffuse pathology. As such, this model may serve as a suitable platform with which to explore repetitive mTBI relevant to human brain injury

    Lifelong behavioral and neuropathological consequences of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

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    Objective: Exposure to repetitive concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), has been linked with increased risk of long-term neurodegenerative changes, specifically chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To date, preclinical studies largely have focused on the immediate aftermath of mTBI, with no literature on the lifelong consequences of mTBI in these models. This study provides the first account of lifelong neurobehavioral and histological consequences of repetitive mTBI providing unique insight into the constellation of evolving and ongoing pathologies with late survival. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice (aged 2–3 months) were exposed to either single or repetitive mild TBI or sham procedure. Thereafter, animals were monitored and assessed at 24 months post last injury for measures of motor coordination, learning deficits, cognitive function, and anxiety-like behavior prior to euthanasia and preparation of the brains for detailed neuropathological and protein biochemical studies. Results: At 24 months survival animals exposed to r-mTBI showed clear evidence of learning and working memory impairment with a lack of spatial memory and vestibule-motor vestibulomotor deficits compared to sham animals. Associated with these late behavioral deficits there was evidence of ongoing axonal degeneration and neuroinflammation in subcortical white matter tracts. Notably, these changes were also observed after a single mTBI, albeit to a lesser degree than repetitive mTBI. Interpretation: In this context, our current data demonstrate, for the first time, that rather than an acute, time limited event, mild TBI can precipitate a lifelong degenerative process. These data therefore suggest that successful treatment strategies should consider both the acute and chronic nature of mTBI

    Disruption in Brain Phospholipid Content in a Humanized Tau Transgenic Model Following Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy typified by immunoreactive tau aggregates in the depths of the sulci. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved have not been largely explored. Phospholipids are important molecules which form membrane lipid bilayers; they are ubiquitous to every cell in the brain, and carry out a host of different functions. Imbalance in phospholipid metabolism, signaling and transport has been documented in some neurological conditions. However, not much is currently known about their roles in repetitive mTBI and how this may confer risk for the development of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. To address this question, we designed a longitudinal study (24 h, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-injury) to comprehensively investigate mTBI dependent brain phospholipid profiles compared to sham counterparts. We use our established mouse model of repetitive mTBI that has been extensively characterized up to 1-year post-injury in humanized tau (hTau) mice, which expresses all six human tau isoforms, on a null murine background. Our data indicates a significant increase in sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and derivative lysoPE and lysoPC at acute and/or sub-acute time points post-injury within the cortex and hippocampus. There was also a parallel increase at early time points in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Omega-6 (arachidonic acid) to omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid) fatty acid ratio for PE and PC species was increased also at 24 h and 3 months post-injury in both hippocampus and cortex. The long-term consequences of these early changes in phospholipids on neuronal and non-neuronal cell function is unclear, and warrants further study. Understanding phospholipid metabolism, signaling and transport following TBI could be valuable; they may offer novel targets for therapeutic intervention not only in TBI but other neurodegenerative diseases

    Feasibility of Predicting MCI/AD Using Neuropsychological Tests and Serum β-Amyloid

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    We examined the usefulness of brief neuropsychological tests and serum Aβ as a predictive test for detecting MCI/AD in older adults. Serum Aβ levels were measured from 208 subjects who were cognitively normal at enrollment and blood draw. Twenty-eight of the subjects subsequently developed MCI (n = 18) or AD (n = 10) over the follow-up period. Baseline measures of global cognition, memory, language fluency, and serum Aβ1–42 and the ratio of serum Aβ1–42/Aβ1–40 were significant predictors for future MCI/AD using Cox regression with demographic variables, APOE ε4, vascular risk factors, and specific medication as covariates. An optimal sensitivity of 85.2% and specificity of 86.5% for predicting MCI/AD was achieved using ROC analyses. Brief neuropsychological tests and measurements of Aβ1–42 obtained via blood warrants further study as a practical and cost effective method for wide-scale screening for identifying older adults who may be at-risk for pathological cognitive decline

    Treatment With Nilvadipine Mitigates Inflammatory Pathology and Improves Spatial Memory in Aged hTau Mice After Repetitive Mild TBI

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    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common form of brain trauma worldwide. The effects of mTBI are not well-studied within the elderly population, yet older adults constitute a significant portion of all mTBI patients. Few preclinical studies have focused on the effects of mTBI, or mTBI treatments, in the aged brain, and none have explored repetitive mTBI (r-mTBI). In this study, we have administered our well-characterized 5-injury model (5 r-mTBI) to hTau mice aged 24 months to explore the neurobehavioral and neuropathological outcomes, and the effects of treatment with the dihydropyridine, Nilvadipine. Our previous studies have shown that Nilvadipine inhibits spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), is effective at reducing inflammation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and amyloid production, and it has recently been investigated in a European Phase III clinical trial for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In our 24-month-old r-mTBI mice, we observed increased neuroinflammation and a trend toward impaired cognitive performance compared to sham controls. Treatment with Nilvadipine mitigated the TBI-induced inflammatory response in aged r-mTBI animals and significantly improved spatial memory. To our knowledge, this is the only preclinical study focusing on the treatment of r-mTBI in aged, and these results suggest a therapeutic potential of Nilvadipine for consequences of mTBI

    Translational potential of long-term decreases in mitochondrial lipids in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness

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    Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 25% of veterans from the 1990–1991 Gulf War (GW) and is accompanied by damage to the brain regions involved in memory processing. After twenty-five years, the chronic pathobiology of GWI is still unexplained. To address this problem, we examined the long-term consequences of GW exposures in an established GWI mouse model to identify biological processes that are relevant to the chronic symptoms of GWI. Three-month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed for 10 days to GW agents (pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin). Barnes Maze testing conducted at 15- and 16-months post-exposure revealed learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemical analyses showed astroglia and microglia activation in the hippocampi of exposed mice. Proteomic studies identified perturbation of mitochondria function and metabolomics data showed decreases in the Krebs cycle compounds, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol-3 phosphate in the brains of exposed mice. Lipidomics data showed decreases in fatty acids, acylcarnitines and phospholipids, including cardiolipins in the brains of exposed mice. Pilot biomarker studies showed that plasma from exposed mice and veterans with GWI had increases in odd-chain, and decreases in long-chain, acylcarnitines compared to their respective controls. Very long-chain acylcarnitines were decreased in veterans with GWI compared to controls. These studies suggest that mitochondrial lipid disturbances might be associated with GWI and that further investigation is required to determine its role in the pathophysiology of this illness. Targeting mitochondrial function may provide effective therapies for GWI, and that lipid abnormalities could serve as biomarkers of GWI
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