17 research outputs found

    The Cytokine, Interleukin-7, Transcriptionally Regulates The Gene Expression Of The Hexokinase Ii To Mediate Glucose Utilization

    Get PDF
    The cytokine, interleukin-7 (IL-7), has essential growth activities that maintain the homeostatic balance of the immune system. Little is known of the mechanism by which IL-7 signaling regulates metabolic activity in support of its vital function in lymphocytes. We observed that IL-7 deprivation caused a rapid decline in ATP levels that were attributable to loss of intracellular glucose retention. To identify the transducer of the IL-7 metabolic signal, we examined the expression of three important regulators of glucose metabolism, the glucose transporter, GLUT-1, and two glycolytic enzymes, Hexokinase II (HXKII) and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1), using an IL-7-dependent T-cell line and primary lymphocytes. We found that in lymphocytes deprived of IL-7 loss of glucose uptake correlated with decreased expression of HXKII. Re-addition of IL-7 to cytokine deprived lymphocytes restored the transcription of the HXKII gene within 2 hours, but not that of GLUT-1 or PFK1. IL-7-mediated increases in HXKII, but not GLUT-1 or PFK-1, were also observed at the protein level. Inhibition of HXKII with 3-Bromopyruvate or specific siRNA decreased glucose utilization, as well as ATP levels, in the presence of IL-7, while over-expression of HXKII, but not GLUT-1, restored glucose retention and increased ATP levels in the absence of IL-7. This IL-7 mediated HXKII gene expression was abrogated with inhibition of JNK pathway. IL-7 also increased activation of AP-1 complex and DNA binding of JunD, a transcriptional complex thought to be negative regulator of proliferation. We found that over expression of HXKII caused cell cycle arrest and cell death, indicating that a potent IL-7 signal could produce negative growth signals. We conclude that IL-7 controls glucose utilization by regulating the gene expression of HXKII through activation of JNK-JunD pathway, suggesting a mechanism by which IL-7 supports bioenergetics that control cell fate decisions in lymphocytes

    Real Time RT-PCR for Direct Detection of Viable Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Chron\u27s Disease Patients and Association of Map Infection with Downregulation in Interferon-Gamma Receptor (INFG1) Gene in Crohn\u27s Disease Patients

    Get PDF
    Association of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) with Crohn\u27s disease (CD) and not with ulcerative colitis (UC), two forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), has been vigorously debated in recent years. This theory has been strengthened by recent culture of MAP from breast milk, intestinal tissue and Blood from patients with active Crohn\u27s disease. Culture of MAP from clinical samples remained challenging due to the fastidious nature of MAP including its lack of cell wall in infected patients. The advent of real time PCR has proven to be significant in infectious disease diagnostics. In this study, real time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay based on targeting mRNA of the IS900 gene unique to MAP has been developed. All variables included in RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and real time PCR amplification have been optimized. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify 165 bp specific to MAP and the assay demonstrated sensitivity of 4 genomes per sample. In hope this real time RT-PCR may aid in the detection of viable MAP cells in Crohn\u27s disease patients, a total of 45 clinical samples were analyzed. Portion of each sample was also subjected to 12 weeks culture followed by standard nested PCR analysis. The samples consisted of 17 cultures (originated from 13 CD, 1 UC and 3 NIBD subjects), 24 buffy coat blood (originated from 7 CD, 2 UC, 11 NIBD and 4 healthy subjects) and 4 intestinal biopsies from 2 CD patients. Real time RT-PCR detected viable MAP in 11/17 (65%) of iii suspected cultures compared to 12/17 (70%) by nested PCR including 77% and 84% from CD samples by both methods, respectively. Real time RT-PCR detected MAP RNA directly from 3/7 (42%) CD, 2/2 (100%) UC and 0/4 healthy controls similar to results following long term culture incubation and nested PCR analysis. Interestingly, real time RT-PCR detected viable MAP in 2/11 (13%) compared to 4/11 (26%) by culture and nested PCR in NIBD patients. For tissue samples, real time RT-PCR detected viable MAP in one CD patient with the culture outcome remains pending. This study clearly indicates that a 12-hr real time RT-PCR assay provided data that are similar to those from 12 weeks culture and nested PCR analysis. Consequently, use of real time In our laboratory, we previously demonstrated a possible downregulation in the Interferon-gamma receptor gene (IFNGR1) in patients with active Crohn\u27s disease using microarray chip analysis. In this study, measurement of RNA by real time qRT-PCR indicated a possible downregulation in 5/6 CD patients compared to 0/12 controls. The preliminary data suggest that downregulation in INFGR1 gene, and the detection of viable MAP in CD patients provides yet the strongest evidence toward the linkage between MAP and CD etiology

    9-PAHSA displays a weak anti-inflammatory potential mediated by specific antagonism of chemokine G protein-coupled receptors

    Get PDF
    Introduction: 9-PAHSA belongs to a class of endogenous mammalian bioactive lipids, fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA), that are present in circulation at nanomolar concentrations in mice and humans. Published preclinical data suggest beneficial effects of 9-PAHSA treatment on glucose metabolism as well as modulation of immune function. However, receptor molecules with high affinity towards these lipids have not been identified so far.Methods: In a broad screen of a panel of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) we discovered that 9-PAHSA displays antagonist activity with an IC50 in the micromolar range on selected chemokine receptors, namely, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5. The potential immunomodulatory activities in a human cellular model of innate immunity were then investigated.Results and discussion: In our in vitro experiments, a weak anti-inflammatory potential for high concentrations of 9-PAHSA (10–100 µM) could be detected, as treatment reduced the LPS-induced secretion of certain chemokines, such as CXCL10, MIP-1 beta and MCP. Regarding metabolic effects, we re-investigated 9-PAHSA on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in vitro and in mice confirming conclusions from our earlier study that FAHFAs lack glucoregulatory activity following an acute treatment. In conclusion, the specific interactions with a subset of chemokine receptors may contribute to weak anti-inflammatory properties of 9-PAHSA, but further studies are needed to confirm its in anti-inflammatory potential in vivo

    JunD/AP-1-Mediated Gene Expression Promotes Lymphocyte Growth Dependent on Interleukin-7 Signal Transduction

    Get PDF
    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential cytokine for lymphocyte growth that has the potential for promoting immune reconstitution. This feature makes IL-7 an ideal candidate for therapeutic development. As with other cytokines, signaling through the IL-7 receptor induces the JAK/STAT pathway. However, the broad scope of IL-7 regulatory targets likely necessitates the use of other signaling components whose identities remain poorly defined. To this end, we used an IL-7 dependent T-cell line to examine how expression of the glycolytic enzyme, Hexokinase II (HXKII) was regulated by IL-7 in a STAT5-independent manner. Our studies revealed that IL-7 promoted the activity of JNK (Jun N-terminal Kinase), and that JNK, in turn, drove the expression of JunD, a component of the Activating Protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors. Gel shifts showed that the AP-1 complex induced by IL-7 contained JunD but not c-Fos or c-Jun. Inhibition of JNK/JunD blocked glucose uptake and HXKII gene expression, indicating that this pathway was responsible for promoting HXKII expression. Because others had shown that JunD was a negative regulator of cell growth, we performed a bioinformatics analysis to uncover possible JunD-regulated gene targets. Our search revealed that JunD could control the expression of proteins involved in signal transduction, cell survival and metabolism. One of these growth promoters was the oncogene, Pim-1. Pim-1 is an IL-7-induced protein that was inhibited when the activities of JNK or JunD were blocked, showing that in IL-7 dependent T-cells JunD can promote positive signals transduced through Pim-1. This was confirmed when the IL-7-induced proliferation of CD8 T-cells was impaired upon JunD inhibition. These results show that engagement of the IL-7 receptor drives a signal that is more complex than the JAK/STAT pathway, activating JNK and JunD to induce rapid growth stimulation through the expression of metabolic and signaling factors like HXKII and Pim-1

    Interleukin-7 mediates glucose utilization in lymphocytes through transcriptional regulation of the hexokinase II gene

    No full text
    The cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7) has essential growth activities that maintain the homeostatic balance of the immune system. Little is known of the mechanism by which IL-7 signaling regulates metabolic activity in support of its vital function in lymphocytes. We observed that IL-7 deprivation caused a rapid decline in the metabolism of glucose that was attributable to loss of intracellular glucose retention. To identify the transducer of the IL-7 metabolic signal, we examined the expression of three important regulators of glucose metabolism, the glucose transporter GLUT-1 and two glycolytic enzymes, hexokinase II (HXKII) and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), using an IL-7-dependent T-cell line and primary lymphocytes. We found that in lymphocytes deprived of IL-7 loss of glucose uptake correlated with decreased expression of HXKII. Readdition of IL-7 to cytokine-deprived lymphocytes restored the transcription of the HXKII gene within 2 h, but not that of GLUT-1 or PFK-1. IL-7-mediated increases in HXKII, but not GLUT-1 or PFK-1, were also observed at the protein level. Inhibition of HXKII with 3-bromopyruvate or specific small-interfering RNA decreased glucose utilization, as well as ATP levels, in the presence of IL-7, whereas overexpression of HXKII, but not GLUT-1, restored glucose retention and increased ATP levels in the absence of IL-7. We conclude that IL-7 controls glucose utilization by regulating the gene expression of HXKII, suggesting a mechanism by which IL-7 supports bioenergetics that control cell fate decisions in lymphocytes

    A Comparison Of Chloroambucil- And Xylene-Containing Poly Amines Leads To Improved Ligands For Accessing The Polyamine Transport System

    No full text
    Several disubstituted arylene- and chloroambucil-polyamine conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to target cells via their polyamine transport system (PAT). As compared to the monosubstituted analogues, the disubstituted arylene systems were superior PAT targeting agents. Using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (PAT active) and its CHO-MG mutant (PAT inactive), the series was screened for their PAT targeting ability. The data were expressed as a CHOMG/CHO IC50 ratio. Indeed, the disubstituted systems gave high IC50 ratios (e.g., ratio \u3e 2000), which indicated high selectivity for the PAT. The chloroambucil adducts were less toxic than the corresponding arylmethyl compounds. In this regard, having the proper recognition element (i.e., homospermidine) and cytotoxic cargo were deemed paramount for successful drug delivery via the PAT. © 2008 American Chemical Society

    IL-7 inducible Pim-1 gene expression is dependent on JNK/JunD.

    No full text
    <p>(A) Pim-1 gene expression in the IL-7 dependent T cell line, D1, was measured by quantitative PCR as described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032262#s4" target="_blank">Methods</a>. D1 cells were cultured with or without IL-7 (+/− IL-7), in the presence of a vehicle control (Vehicle) or 20 µM JNK inhibitor (JNK Inh). In some samples, after an 18 hour deprivation, IL-7 was added back to the culture for 2 hours in the presence of a vehicle control (IL-7 Re-addition, Vehicle) or 20 µM JNK inhibitor (IL-7 Re-addition, JNK Inh). (*) indicates P = 0.0104. (B) Quantitative PCR of Pim-1 gene expression was performed using D1 cells cultured for 52 hours with IL-7 (+) and then 18 hours without IL-7 (−) in the presence of non-targeting control (NT) or JunD siRNA. A separate group was also deprived of IL-7, and then re-stimulated with IL-7 for two hours in the presence of siRNA (IL-7 Re-addition). RQ (Fold change in gene expression normalized to β-actin) = 2<sup>−ΔΔCt</sup>. <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032262#s2" target="_blank">Results</a> are representative of three experiments performed in triplicate (values in graphs are mean ± SD). (*) indicates P = 0.0140.</p
    corecore