45 research outputs found

    Symmetry and Unification from Soft Theorems and Unitarity

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    We argue that symmetry and unification can emerge as byproducts of certain physical constraints on dynamical scattering. To accomplish this we parameterize a general Lorentz invariant, four-dimensional theory of massless and massive scalar fields coupled via arbitrary local interactions. Assuming perturbative unitarity and an Adler zero condition, we prove that any finite spectrum of massless and massive modes will necessarily unify at high energies into multiplets of a linearized symmetry. Certain generators of the symmetry algebra can be derived explicitly in terms of the spectrum and three-particle interactions. Furthermore, our assumptions imply that the coset space is symmetric

    Exploring a Non-Minimal Sterile Neutrino Model Involving Decay at IceCube and Beyond

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    We study the phenomenology of neutrino decay together with neutrino oscillations in the context of eV-scale sterile neutrinos. We review the formalism of visible neutrino decay in which one of the decay products is a neutrino that potentially can be observed. We apply the formalism developed for decay to the recent sterile neutrino search performed by IceCube with TeV neutrinos. We show that for Îœ4\nu_4 lifetime τ4/m4â‰Č10−16eV−1s\tau_4/m_4 \lesssim 10^{-16} {\rm eV^{-1}s}, the interpretation of the high-energy IceCube analysis can be significantly changed.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures. Find code at: https://github.com/arguelles/nuSQUIDSDeca

    Regeneration of Aged DMF for Use in Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis

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    DMF, which is still the most commonly used solvent for Fmoc-SPPS, has the potential for degradation over time on exposure to air (and water vapour) and storage, to give dimethylamine and formic acid impurities. In particular, dimethylamine can lead to unwanted deprotection of the Fmoc group during for example the initial loading of Fmoc amino acids in SPPS, which leads reduced calculated loading values. We have found that treatment of such aged DMF by simple sparging with an inert gas (N2), or vacuum sonication, can regenerate the DMF in order to restore loading levels back to those found for newer, fresh, DMF samples

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    The Physics of the B Factories

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    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C

    Heat stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas : a study for a densely populated midlatitude maritime region

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    Urban areas are usually warmer than their surrounding natural areas, an effect known as the urban heat island effect. As such, they are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine unprecedented long-term (35years) urban climate model integrations at the convection-permitting scale (2.8km resolution) with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess temperature-based heat stress for Belgium, a densely populated midlatitude maritime region. We discover that the heat stress increase toward the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heat waves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our results demonstrate the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas

    The Physics of the B Factories