86 research outputs found

    Knowledge Management for Policy

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    The Communication C(2016)6626 on Data, Information and Knowledge Management sets the objective to improve knowledge management and collaborative working in the European Commission, modernising the Institution by overcoming silos mentalities and connecting synergies between portfolios. The European Commission’s science and knowledge service, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) has taken up this challenge in its 2030 Strategy, striving to become more efficient in mobilising scientific competences around the Commission’s policy goals and to transform from a traditional research-producing organisation into a world-leading manager of knowledge for EU policy-making.JRC.H-Knowledge Management (Ispra

    Reduced resting-state functional connectivity of the somatosensory cortex predicts psychopathological symptoms in women with bulimia nervosa.

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    Background: Alterations in the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of several brain networks have been demonstrated in eating disorders. However, very few studies are currently available on brain network dysfunctions in bulimia nervosa (BN). The somatosensory network is central in processing body-related stimuli and it may be altered in BN. The present study therefore aimed to investigate rs-FC in the somatosensory network in bulimic women. Methods: Sixteen medication-free women with BN (age‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ23‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ5‚ÄČyears) and 18 matched controls (age‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ23‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ3‚ÄČyears) underwent a functional magnetic resonance resting-state scan and assessment of eating disorder symptoms. Within-network and seed-based functional connectivity analyses were conducted to assess rs-FC within the somatosensory network and to other areas of the brain. Results: Bulimia nervosa patients showed a decreased rs-FC both within the somatosensory network (t‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ9.0, df‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1, P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.005) and with posterior cingulate cortex and two visual areas (the right middle occipital gyrus and the right cuneus) (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.05 corrected for multiple comparison). The rs-FC of the left paracentral lobule with the right middle occipital gyrus correlated with psychopathology measures like bulimia (r‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ‚ąí0.4; P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.02) and interoceptive awareness (r‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ‚ąí0.4; P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.01). Analyses were conducted using age, BMI (body mass index), and depressive symptoms as covariates. Conclusion: Our findings show a specific alteration of the rs-FC of the somatosensory cortex in BN patients, which correlates with eating disorder symptoms. The region in the right middle occipital gyrus is implicated in body processing and is known as extrastriate body area (EBA). The connectivity between the somatosensory cortex and the EBA might be related to dysfunctions in body image processing. The results should be considered preliminary due to the small sample size

    Multivariate analysis of brain metabolism reveals chemotherapy effects on prefrontal cerebellar system when related to dorsal attention network

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    BACKGROUND: Functional brain changes induced by chemotherapy are still not well characterized. We used a novel approach with a multivariate technique to analyze brain resting state [(18)‚ÄČF]FDG-PET in patients with lymphoma, to explore differences on cerebral metabolic glucose rate between chemotherapy-treated and non-treated patients. METHODS: PET/CT scan was performed on 28 patients, with 14 treated with systemic chemotherapy. We used a support vector machine (SVM) classification, extracting the mean metabolism from the metabolic patterns, or networks, that discriminate the two groups. We calculated the correct classifications of the two groups using the mean metabolic values extracted by the networks. RESULTS: The SVM classification analysis gave clear-cut patterns that discriminate the two groups. The first, hypometabolic network in chemotherapy patients, included mostly prefrontal cortex and cerebellar areas (central executive network, CEN, and salience network, SN); the second, which is equal between groups, included mostly parietal areas and the frontal eye field (dorsal attention network, DAN). The correct classification membership to chemotherapy or not chemotherapy-treated patients, using only one network, was of 50% to 68%; however, when all the networks were used together, it reached 80%. CONCLUSIONS: The evidenced networks were related to attention and executive functions, with CEN and SN more specialized in shifting, inhibition and monitoring, DAN in orienting attention. Only using DAN as a reference point, indicating the global frontal functioning before chemotherapy, we could better classify the subjects. The emerging concept consists in the importance of the investigation of brain intrinsic networks and their relations in chemotherapy cognitive induced changes

    The future of road transport

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    A perfect storm of new technologies and new business models is transforming not only our vehicles, but everything about how we get around, and how we live our lives. The JRC report ‚ÄúThe future of road transport - Implications of automated, connected, low-carbon and shared mobility‚ÄĚ looks at some main enablers of the transformation of road transport, such as data governance, infrastructures, communication technologies and cybersecurity, and legislation. It discusses the potential impacts on the economy, employment and skills, energy use and emissions, the sustainability of raw materials, democracy, privacy and social fairness, as well as on the urban context. It shows how the massive changes on the horizon represent an opportunity to move towards a transport system that is more efficient, safer, less polluting and more accessible to larger parts of society than the current one centred on car ownership. However, new transport technologies, on their own, won't spontaneously make our lives better without upgrading our transport systems and policies to the 21st century. The improvement of governance and the development of innovative mobility solutions will be crucial to ensure that the future of transport is cleaner and more equitable than its car-centred present.JRC.C.4-Sustainable Transpor

    The Future of Cities

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    This report is an initiative of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), the science and knowledge service of the European Commission (EC), and supported by the Commission's Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy (DG REGIO). It highlights drivers shaping the urban future, identifying both the key challenges cities will have to address and the strengths they can capitalise on to proactively build their desired futures. The main aim of this report is to raise open questions and steer discussions on what the future of cities can, and should be, both within the science and policymaker communities. While addressing mainly European cities, examples from other world regions are also given since many challenges and solutions have a global relevance. The report is particularly novel in two ways. First, it was developed in an inclusive manner ‚Äď close collaboration with the EC‚Äôs Community of Practice on Cities (CoP-CITIES) provided insights from the broader research community and city networks, including individual municipalities, as well as Commission services and international organisations. It was also extensively reviewed by an Editorial Board. Secondly, the report is supported by an online ‚Äėliving‚Äô platform which will host future updates, including additional analyses, discussions, case studies, comments and interactive maps that go beyond the scope of the current version of the report. Steered by the JRC, the platform will offer a permanent virtual space to the research, practice and policymaking community for sharing and accumulating knowledge on the future of cities. This report is produced in the framework of the EC Knowledge Centre for Territorial Policies and is part of a wider series of flagship Science for Policy reports by the JRC, investigating future perspectives concerning Artificial Intelligence, the Future of Road Transport, Resilience, Cybersecurity and Fairness Interactive online platform : https://urban.jrc.ec.europa.eu/thefutureofcitiesJRC.B.3-Territorial Developmen

    Omecamtiv mecarbil in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, GALACTIC‚ÄźHF: baseline characteristics and comparison with contemporary clinical trials

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    Aims: The safety and efficacy of the novel selective cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is tested in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure (GALACTIC‚ÄźHF) trial. Here we describe the baseline characteristics of participants in GALACTIC‚ÄźHF and how these compare with other contemporary trials. Methods and Results: Adults with established HFrEF, New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA)‚ÄČ‚Č•‚ÄČII, EF ‚ȧ35%, elevated natriuretic peptides and either current hospitalization for HF or history of hospitalization/ emergency department visit for HF within a year were randomized to either placebo or omecamtiv mecarbil (pharmacokinetic‚Äźguided dosing: 25, 37.5 or 50‚ÄČmg bid). 8256 patients [male (79%), non‚Äźwhite (22%), mean age 65‚ÄČyears] were enrolled with a mean EF 27%, ischemic etiology in 54%, NYHA II 53% and III/IV 47%, and median NT‚ÄźproBNP 1971‚ÄČpg/mL. HF therapies at baseline were among the most effectively employed in contemporary HF trials. GALACTIC‚ÄźHF randomized patients representative of recent HF registries and trials with substantial numbers of patients also having characteristics understudied in previous trials including more from North America (n = 1386), enrolled as inpatients (n = 2084), systolic blood pressure‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ100‚ÄČmmHg (n = 1127), estimated glomerular filtration rate <‚ÄČ30‚ÄČmL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 528), and treated with sacubitril‚Äźvalsartan at baseline (n = 1594). Conclusions: GALACTIC‚ÄźHF enrolled a well‚Äźtreated, high‚Äźrisk population from both inpatient and outpatient settings, which will provide a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this novel therapy, as well as informing its potential future implementation
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