2,812 research outputs found

    Knowledge politics and new converging technologies: a social epistemological perspective

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    The ‚Äúnew converging technologies‚ÄĚ refers to the prospect of advancing the human condition by the integrated study and application of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and the cognitive sciences - or ‚ÄúNBIC‚ÄĚ. In recent years, it has loomed large, albeit with somewhat different emphases, in national science policy agendas throughout the world. This article considers the political and intellectual sources - both historical and contemporary - of the converging technologies agenda. Underlying it is a fluid conception of humanity that is captured by the ethically challenging notion of ‚Äúenhancing evolution‚ÄĚ

    Combined analysis of three genome-wide association studies on vWF and FVIII plasma levels

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Elevated levels of factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, in particular venous thrombosis. Although high, the heritability of these traits is poorly explained by the genetic factors known so far. The aim of this work was to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could influence the variability of these traits.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Three independent genome-wide association studies for vWF plasma levels and FVIII activity were conducted and their results were combined into a meta-analysis totalling 1,624 subjects.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reached the study-wide significance level of 1.12 √ó 10<sup>-7 </sup>that corresponds to the Bonferroni correction for the number of tested SNPs. Nevertheless, the recently discovered association of <it>STXBP5</it>, <it>STX2</it>, <it>TC2N </it>and <it>CLEC4M </it>genes with vWF levels and that of <it>SCARA5 </it>and STAB2 genes with FVIII levels were confirmed in this meta-analysis. Besides, among the fifteen novel SNPs showing promising association at p < 10<sup>-5 </sup>with either vWF or FVIII levels in the meta-analysis, one located in <it>ACCN1 </it>gene also showed weak association (<it>P </it>= 0.0056) with venous thrombosis in a sample of 1,946 cases and 1,228 controls.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This study has generated new knowledge on genomic regions deserving further investigations in the search for genetic factors influencing vWF and FVIII plasma levels, some potentially implicated in VT, as well as providing some supporting evidence of previously identified genes.</p

    Synthetic biology: Building the language for a new science brick by metaphorical brick

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    Changes in the biosciences and their relations to society over the last decades provide a unique opportunity to examine whether or not such changes leave traces in the language we use to talk about them. In this article we examine metaphors used in English-speaking press coverage to conceptualize a new type of (interdisciplinary) bioscience: synthetic biology. Findings show that three central metaphors were used between 2008 and May 2010. They exploit social and cultural knowledge about books, computers and engines and are linked to knowledge of three revolutions in science and society (the printing, information and industrial revolutions). These three central metaphors are connected to each other through the concepts of reading/writing, designing and mass production and they focus on science as a revolutionary process rather than on the end results or products of science. Overall, we observed the use of a complex bricolage of mixed metaphors and chains of metaphors that root synthetic biology in historical events and achievements, while at the same time extolling its promises for the future. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC

    Relationship of metabolic syndrome and its components with -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican children

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and <it>HindIII </it>C/G <it>PAI-1 </it>polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in <it>PAI-1 </it>gene and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Mexican mestizo children.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>This study included 100 children with an age range between 6-11 years divided in two groups: a) 48 children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and b) 52 children metabolically healthy without any clinical and biochemical alteration. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting glucose levels ‚Č• 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ‚Č• 150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol < 40 mg/dL, obesity BMI ‚Č• 95<sup>th </sup>percentile, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ‚Č• 95<sup>th </sup>percentile and insulin resistance HOMA-IR ‚Č• 2.4. The -844 G/A and <it>HindIII </it>C/G <it>PAI-1 </it>polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>For the -844 G/A polymorphism, the G/A genotype (OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.11-7.08; <it>p </it>= 0.015) and the A allele (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.43; <it>p </it>= 0.015) were associated with metabolic syndrome. The -844 G/A and A/A genotypes were associated with increase in plasma triglycerides levels (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.04; <it>p </it>= 0.02), decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.42; <it>p </it>= 0.03) and obesity (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.17-5.92; <it>p </it>= 0.01). The C/G and G/G genotypes of the <it>HindIII </it>C/G polymorphism contributed to a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol levels (179 vs. 165 mg/dL; <it>p </it>= 0.02) in comparison with C/C genotype.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The -844 G/A <it>PAI-1 </it>polymorphism is related with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the <it>HindIII </it>C/G <it>PAI-1 </it>polymorphism was associated with the increase of total cholesterol levels in Mexican children.</p

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+‚Üíőľ+őĹW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W‚ąí‚Üíőľ‚ąíőĹW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC