2,298 research outputs found

    The Seventh Generation: Exploring the journey of Charlotte (Birrpai Goori woman) and James Bugg (her English convict husband), and their descendants through to today, with reflection on the law of the seven generations

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    My 3rd Great-Grandfather on my mother’s side of our family, James (Jimmy) Bugg, was convicted for stealing meat in Essex in 1825 and sentenced for life in the British penal colony of New South Wales. In January 1827 he was placed as assigned labour with the Australian Agricultural Company (AACo) which had received a million acre grant from the Colonial Government, across the lands of the Worimi, Gringhai and Birrpai2 peoples. He became an Overseer of Shepherds, and within 4 years he partnered, and later married my 3rd Great Grandmother, a Goori woman who had been given the English name, Charlotte. Charlotte and James Bugg had eight children and part of their life together is documented in the historical records of the AACo as well as other sources such as Court transcripts, Church Records and Colonial Secretary Correspondence (CSC). As an inter-racial couple, they fought off challenges from the Church, the government, and some within the Goori community, to successfully raise their children and remain together until Charlotte’s death, aged 48 in 1861. Their life was an example of a successful cross-cultural marriage, albeit one that was weighted towards assimilation into the emerging domineering culture of British colonialism

    Validation of the Scientific Program for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

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    International audienceThe Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) was designed to conduct a survey covering 14,000 deg2^2 over five years to constrain the cosmic expansion history through precise measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The scientific program for DESI was evaluated during a five month Survey Validation (SV) campaign before beginning full operations. This program produced deep spectra of tens of thousands of objects from each of the stellar (MWS), bright galaxy (BGS), luminous red galaxy (LRG), emission line galaxy (ELG), and quasar target classes. These SV spectra were used to optimize redshift distributions, characterize exposure times, determine calibration procedures, and assess observational overheads for the five-year program. In this paper, we present the final target selection algorithms, redshift distributions, and projected cosmology constraints resulting from those studies. We also present a `One-Percent survey' conducted at the conclusion of Survey Validation covering 140 deg2^2 using the final target selection algorithms with exposures of a depth typical of the main survey. The Survey Validation indicates that DESI will be able to complete the full 14,000 deg2^2 program with spectroscopically-confirmed targets from the MWS, BGS, LRG, ELG, and quasar programs with total sample sizes of 7.2, 13.8, 7.46, 15.7, and 2.87 million, respectively. These samples will allow exploration of the Milky Way halo, clustering on all scales, and BAO measurements with a statistical precision of 0.28% over the redshift interval z<1.1z<1.1, 0.39% over the redshift interval 1.1<z<1.91.1<z<1.9, and 0.46% over the redshift interval 1.9<z<3.51.9<z<3.5

    Validation of the Scientific Program for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

    No full text
    International audienceThe Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) was designed to conduct a survey covering 14,000 deg2^2 over five years to constrain the cosmic expansion history through precise measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The scientific program for DESI was evaluated during a five month Survey Validation (SV) campaign before beginning full operations. This program produced deep spectra of tens of thousands of objects from each of the stellar (MWS), bright galaxy (BGS), luminous red galaxy (LRG), emission line galaxy (ELG), and quasar target classes. These SV spectra were used to optimize redshift distributions, characterize exposure times, determine calibration procedures, and assess observational overheads for the five-year program. In this paper, we present the final target selection algorithms, redshift distributions, and projected cosmology constraints resulting from those studies. We also present a `One-Percent survey' conducted at the conclusion of Survey Validation covering 140 deg2^2 using the final target selection algorithms with exposures of a depth typical of the main survey. The Survey Validation indicates that DESI will be able to complete the full 14,000 deg2^2 program with spectroscopically-confirmed targets from the MWS, BGS, LRG, ELG, and quasar programs with total sample sizes of 7.2, 13.8, 7.46, 15.7, and 2.87 million, respectively. These samples will allow exploration of the Milky Way halo, clustering on all scales, and BAO measurements with a statistical precision of 0.28% over the redshift interval z<1.1z<1.1, 0.39% over the redshift interval 1.1<z<1.91.1<z<1.9, and 0.46% over the redshift interval 1.9<z<3.51.9<z<3.5

    The Early Data Release of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

    No full text
    International audienceThe Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) completed its five-month Survey Validation in May 2021. Spectra of stellar and extragalactic targets from Survey Validation constitute the first major data sample from the DESI survey. This paper describes the public release of those spectra, the catalogs of derived properties, and the intermediate data products. In total, the public release includes good-quality spectral information from 466,447 objects targeted as part of the Milky Way Survey, 428,758 as part of the Bright Galaxy Survey, 227,318 as part of the Luminous Red Galaxy sample, 437,664 as part of the Emission Line Galaxy sample, and 76,079 as part of the Quasar sample. In addition, the release includes spectral information from 137,148 objects that expand the scope beyond the primary samples as part of a series of secondary programs. Here, we describe the spectral data, data quality, data products, Large-Scale Structure science catalogs, access to the data, and references that provide relevant background to using these spectra

    The Early Data Release of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

    No full text
    International audienceThe Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) completed its five-month Survey Validation in May 2021. Spectra of stellar and extragalactic targets from Survey Validation constitute the first major data sample from the DESI survey. This paper describes the public release of those spectra, the catalogs of derived properties, and the intermediate data products. In total, the public release includes good-quality spectral information from 466,447 objects targeted as part of the Milky Way Survey, 428,758 as part of the Bright Galaxy Survey, 227,318 as part of the Luminous Red Galaxy sample, 437,664 as part of the Emission Line Galaxy sample, and 76,079 as part of the Quasar sample. In addition, the release includes spectral information from 137,148 objects that expand the scope beyond the primary samples as part of a series of secondary programs. Here, we describe the spectral data, data quality, data products, Large-Scale Structure science catalogs, access to the data, and references that provide relevant background to using these spectra

    Validation of the Scientific Program for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

    No full text
    International audienceThe Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) was designed to conduct a survey covering 14,000 deg2^2 over five years to constrain the cosmic expansion history through precise measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The scientific program for DESI was evaluated during a five month Survey Validation (SV) campaign before beginning full operations. This program produced deep spectra of tens of thousands of objects from each of the stellar (MWS), bright galaxy (BGS), luminous red galaxy (LRG), emission line galaxy (ELG), and quasar target classes. These SV spectra were used to optimize redshift distributions, characterize exposure times, determine calibration procedures, and assess observational overheads for the five-year program. In this paper, we present the final target selection algorithms, redshift distributions, and projected cosmology constraints resulting from those studies. We also present a `One-Percent survey' conducted at the conclusion of Survey Validation covering 140 deg2^2 using the final target selection algorithms with exposures of a depth typical of the main survey. The Survey Validation indicates that DESI will be able to complete the full 14,000 deg2^2 program with spectroscopically-confirmed targets from the MWS, BGS, LRG, ELG, and quasar programs with total sample sizes of 7.2, 13.8, 7.46, 15.7, and 2.87 million, respectively. These samples will allow exploration of the Milky Way halo, clustering on all scales, and BAO measurements with a statistical precision of 0.28% over the redshift interval z<1.1z<1.1, 0.39% over the redshift interval 1.1<z<1.91.1<z<1.9, and 0.46% over the redshift interval 1.9<z<3.51.9<z<3.5

    Exploring the cost-effectiveness of high versus low perioperative fraction of inspired oxygen in the prevention of surgical site infections among abdominal surgery patients in three low- and middle-income countries