82,278 research outputs found

    Fast Times in Federal Court and the Need for Flexibility

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    The shifting landscape of criminal prosecutions involving designer drugs presents several novel legal issues. There are different ways to address these issues when they are the result of the production, possession, or distribution of as-of-yet unregulated substances. One way is for the legislature to enact appropriate legislation as quickly as the need for regulation or criminalization arises—a lofty, if not unrealistic, goal. The other is to guide the courts with general principles of applicability—the approach adopted by Congress through the enactment of the Analogue Act. This small but unfortunately quickly expanding area of federal criminal law supports the notion that providing the courts with flexibility is necessary and ultimately consistent with the legislative approach in this field

    EEOC & Wolansky v. United Healthcare of Florida, Inc.

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    The women in IT (WINIT) final report

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    The Women in IT (WINIT) project was funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) from March 2004 until April 2006 under HE ESF Objective 3: Research into equal opportunities in the labour market. Specifically the project came under Policy Field 2, Measure 2: Gender discrimination in employment. The project was run in the Information Systems Institute of the University of Salford. One of the Research Associates has an information systems (IS) background, the other has a background in sociology. We begin this report with an overview of the current situation with regards women in the UK IT sector. Whilst gender is only recently being recognised as an issue within the mainstream IS academic community, thirty years of female under-representation in the ICT field in more general terms has received more attention from academics, industry and government agencies alike. Numerous research projects and centres (such as the UK Resource Centre for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology) exist to tackle the under-representation of women in SET careers, although the figures for women’s participation in the ICT sector remain disheartening, with current estimates standing at around 15% (EOC 2004). Various innovative initiatives, such as e-Skills’ Computer Clubs for Girls, appear to have had little impact on these low female participation rates. Additionally, these and other initiatives have been interpreted as a means to fill the skills gap and ‘make up the numbers’ to boost the UK economy (French and Richardson 2005), resulting in ‘add more women and stir’ solutions to the ‘problem’ of gender in relation to inclusion in IS and ICT (Henwood 1996). Given that there have been decades of equal opportunity and related policies as well as many government initiatives designed to address the gender imbalance in IT employment patterns, sex segregation in IT occupations and pay and progression disparity in the IT sector (including the latest initiative- a one million pound DTI funded gender and SET project), we could be forgiven for assuming that these initiatives have had a beneficial effect on the position and number of women in the IT workforce, and that even if we have not yet achieved gender equity, we can surely argue that there are positive moves in the right direction. Although we do not wish to make definitive claims about the success or failure of specific initiatives, our research, backed up by recent major surveys, paints a picture that remains far from rosy. Indeed a recent comparative survey of the IT workforce in Germany, Holland and the UK indicates that women are haemorrhaging out of the UK IT workforce (Platman and Taylor 2004). From a high point of 100,892 women in the UK IT workforce in 1999, Platman and Taylor (ibid., 8) report a drop to 53,759 by 2003. As the IT industry was moving into recession anyway, the number of men in the industry has also declined, but by nothing like as much, so the figures for women are stark. When it comes to number crunching who is employed in the UK IT sector and when trying to make historical comparisons, the first obstacle is defining the sector itself. Studies vary quite substantially in the number of IT workers quoted suggesting there is quite a bit of variation in what is taken to be an IT job. The IT industry has experienced considerable expansion over the past twenty years. In spring 2003 in Britain, it was estimated that almost 900,000 people worked in ICT firms, and there were over 1 million ICT workers, filling ICT roles in any sector (e-Skills UK, 2003). This growth has resulted in talk of a ‘skills shortage’ requiring the ‘maximization’ of the workforce to its full potential: ‘You don’t just need pale, male, stale guys in the boardroom but a diversity of views’ (Stone 2004). In spring 2003 the Equal Opportunities Commission estimated there to be 151,000 women working in ICT occupations compared with 834,000 men (clearly using a different, much wider job definition from that of Platman and Taylor (2004)) , whilst in the childcare sector, there were less than 10,000 men working in these occupations, compared with 297,000 women (EOC 2004). It is estimated that the overall proportion of women working in ICT occupations is 15% (EOC 2004). In the UK, Office of National Statistics (ONS) statistics indicate that women accounted for 30% of IT operations technicians, but a mere 15% of ICT Managers and only 11% of IT strategy and planning professionals (EOC 2004). Although women are making inroads into technical and senior professions there remains a ‘feminisation’ of lower level jobs, with a female majority in operator and clerical roles and a female minority in technical and managerial roles (APC 2004).

    All roads lead to Rome: channelling inter-campus, interlibrary and off-campus requests through a single user interface

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    The message from remote library clients is clear and unequivocal - they want material quickly and easily. They would prefer not to have to differentiate between the three library services of intercampus, interlibrary, or off-campus requests - they just want a particular document or book forwarded to them as soon as possible. At the University of Southern Queensland Library, VDX software has been utilised to provide a single search and request interface for library material. Differentiating between individual clients,it displays and activates only those services for which a particular client is eligible. Remote undergraduates for example, have the ability to search and request from USQ catalogue only, while those students eligible for interlibrary loans can search and initiate requests across a range of catalogues. Whilst simplifying processes for clients, the challenge to Library staff has been to successfully manipulate the software and work processes to handle this complex arrangement. This paper will discuss the introduction of this new initiative focusing on the following issues: - Background - Client view - Dual services and associated challenges - Impact on staff - Improvements planned in the next six months - Marketing - Conclusio

    RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

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    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface

    Lattice-induced non-adiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

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    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of 3-D lattice geometries this coupling is shown to only affect clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390 nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10−1810^{-18} and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.Comment: 5 page

    Radar scatterometry - An active remote sensing tool

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    Radar scatterometer for measuring scattering coefficient variation with angle, wavelength, and polarizatio

    Design data for radars based on 13.9 GHz Skylab scattering coefficient measurements

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    The author has identified the following significant results. Measurements made at 13.9 GHz with the radar scatterometer on Skylab have been combined to produce median curves of the variation of scattering coefficient with angle of incidence out to 45 deg. Because of the large number of observations, and the large area averaged for each measured data point, these curves may be used as a new design base for radars. A reasonably good fit at larger angles is obtained using the theoretical expression based on an exponential height correlation function and also using Lambert's law. For angles under 10 deg, a different fit based on the exponential correlation function, and a fit based on geometric optics expressions are both reasonably valid