1,396 research outputs found

    Publius’s Protectors of Liberty: A Still Important Role for States

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    Oral Health and Barriers to Care in Burlington Housing Authority Residents

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    Background Oral health affects everyone and serves as a model for the long term benefits of establishing preventative health practices early in life. However, children with significant socioeconomic stress or cultural and language barriers to access may have difficulty obtaining oral hygiene information, or developing and maintaining oral health regimens. The Burlington Housing Authority (BHA) provides housing subsidization to low-income families and services many resettled refugee families in Burlington, VT. We recognize some intervention initiatives are already and place, and will evaluate program efficacy and utilization. Ultimately, we seek to understand barriers to the existing programs and recommend strategies to increase utilization, compliance, and education in our target population.https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/comphp_gallery/1273/thumbnail.jp

    A spike-modified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infectious clone elicits mild respiratory disease in infected rhesus macaques

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    The recurrence of new human cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) underscores the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures. Nonhuman primate models are considered the gold standard for preclinical evaluation of therapeutic countermeasures. However, MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease in humans is associated with high viral loads in the lower respiratory tract, which may be difficult to achieve in nonhuman primate models. Considering this limitation, we wanted to ascertain the effectiveness of using a MERS-CoV infectious clone (icMERS-0) previously shown to replicate to higher titers than the wild-type EMC 2012 strain. We observed respiratory disease resulting from exposure to the icMERS-0 strain as measured by CT in rhesus monkeys with concomitant detection of virus antigen by immunohistochemistry. Overall, respiratory disease was mild and transient, resolving by day 30 post-infection. Although pulmonary disease was mild, these results demonstrate for the first time the utility of CT imaging to measure disease elicited by a MERS-CoV infectious clone system in nonhuman primate models

    Genome-wide identification of FoxO-dependent gene networks in skeletal muscle during C26 cancer cachexia

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    BACKGROUND: Evidence from cachectic cancer patients and animal models of cancer cachexia supports the involvement of Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors in driving cancer-induced skeletal muscle wasting. However, the genome-wide gene networks and associated biological processes regulated by FoxO during cancer cachexia are unknown. We hypothesize that FoxO is a central upstream regulator of diverse gene networks in skeletal muscle during cancer that may act coordinately to promote the wasting phenotype. METHODS: To inhibit endogenous FoxO DNA-binding, we transduced limb and diaphragm muscles of mice with AAV9 containing the cDNA for a dominant negative (d.n.) FoxO protein (or GFP control). The d.n.FoxO construct consists of only the FoxO3a DNA-binding domain that is highly homologous to that of FoxO1 and FoxO4, and which outcompetes and blocks endogenous FoxO DNA binding. Mice were subsequently inoculated with Colon-26 (C26) cells and muscles harvested 26 days later. RESULTS: Blocking FoxO prevented C26-induced muscle fiber atrophy of both locomotor muscles and the diaphragm and significantly spared force deficits. This sparing of muscle size and function was associated with the differential regulation of 543 transcripts (out of 2,093) which changed in response to C26. Bioinformatics analysis of upregulated gene transcripts that required FoxO revealed enrichment of the proteasome, AP-1 and IL-6 pathways, and included several atrophy-related transcription factors, including Stat3, Fos, and Cebpb. FoxO was also necessary for the cancer-induced downregulation of several gene transcripts that were enriched for extracellular matrix and sarcomere protein-encoding genes. We validated these findings in limb muscles and the diaphragm through qRT-PCR, and further demonstrate that FoxO1 and/or FoxO3a are sufficient to increase Stat3, Fos, Cebpb, and the C/EBPő≤ target gene, Ubr2. Analysis of the Cebpb proximal promoter revealed two bona fide FoxO binding elements, which we further establish are necessary for Cebpb promoter activation in response to IL-6, a predominant cytokine in the C26 cancer model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new evidence that FoxO-dependent transcription is a central node controlling diverse gene networks in skeletal muscle during cancer cachexia, and identifies novel candidate genes and networks for further investigation as causative factors in cancer-induced wasting.R01 AR060217 - NIAMS NIH HHS; R01 AR060209 - NIAMS NIH HHS; T32 HD043730 - NICHD NIH HHS; R00 HL098453 - NHLBI NIH HHS; R00HL098453 - NHLBI NIH HHS; R01AR060209 - NIAMS NIH HHS; R01AR060217 - NIAMS NIH HH

    Effectiveness of the EMPOWER-PAR Intervention in Improving Clinical Outcomes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care: A Pragmatic Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

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    Adjunctive rifampicin for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common cause of severe community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that adjunctive rifampicin would reduce bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death, by enhancing early S aureus killing, sterilising infected foci and blood faster, and reducing risks of dissemination and metastatic infection. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults (‚Č•18 years) with S aureus bacteraemia who had received ‚ȧ96 h of active antibiotic therapy were recruited from 29 UK hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated sequential randomisation list to receive 2 weeks of adjunctive rifampicin (600 mg or 900 mg per day according to weight, oral or intravenous) versus identical placebo, together with standard antibiotic therapy. Randomisation was stratified by centre. Patients, investigators, and those caring for the patients were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was time to bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death (all-cause), from randomisation to 12 weeks, adjudicated by an independent review committee masked to the treatment. Analysis was intention to treat. This trial was registered, number ISRCTN37666216, and is closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Between Dec 10, 2012, and Oct 25, 2016, 758 eligible participants were randomly assigned: 370 to rifampicin and 388 to placebo. 485 (64%) participants had community-acquired S aureus infections, and 132 (17%) had nosocomial S aureus infections. 47 (6%) had meticillin-resistant infections. 301 (40%) participants had an initial deep infection focus. Standard antibiotics were given for 29 (IQR 18-45) days; 619 (82%) participants received flucloxacillin. By week 12, 62 (17%) of participants who received rifampicin versus 71 (18%) who received placebo experienced treatment failure or disease recurrence, or died (absolute risk difference -1¬∑4%, 95% CI -7¬∑0 to 4¬∑3; hazard ratio 0¬∑96, 0¬∑68-1¬∑35, p=0¬∑81). From randomisation to 12 weeks, no evidence of differences in serious (p=0¬∑17) or grade 3-4 (p=0¬∑36) adverse events were observed; however, 63 (17%) participants in the rifampicin group versus 39 (10%) in the placebo group had antibiotic or trial drug-modifying adverse events (p=0¬∑004), and 24 (6%) versus six (2%) had drug interactions (p=0¬∑0005). INTERPRETATION: Adjunctive rifampicin provided no overall benefit over standard antibiotic therapy in adults with S aureus bacteraemia. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment

    Author Correction: The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data

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    The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data

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    The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.Peer reviewe

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in ‚ąös = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector