464 research outputs found

    The 'new' principal task for Europol to support Member States in connection with major international events: the blurring of boundaries between law enforcement and public order?

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    As from 1 January 2010 a new principal task for the European Police Office (Europol) is to provide intelligence and analytical support to Member States in connection with major international events. The first research question of this paper is whether this new task, which was not as such provided for by the Europol Convention, qualifies as a true novelty. On the one hand, the Europol Council Decision merely gives a more profound legal basis to already existing practices. On the other hand, all options are open for the further development of Europol. The second research question is whether this seemingly information-related task would in fact not amount to a task of public order, which would then no longer be compatible with Europol’s objective. Although the actual Europol Council Decision does not explicitly mention public order policing, the new task would not exclude Europol from supporting national police action with a public order impact. This potential blurring of the boundaries between law enforcement and order maintenance is not without risk

    Go West! Political, legal and operational aspects of cooperation between Europol and the United States

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    This paper serves as a building block in the process of writing a doctoral thesis in law (working title: Europol, quo vadis? Critical analysis and evaluation of the development of the European Police Office). Based in The Hague (The Netherlands), Europol is the European Union (EU) law enforcement agency that handles criminal intelligence. Its formal objective, as laid down in the Europol Council Decision, is to ‚Äúto support and strenghten action by the competent authorities of the Member States and their mutual cooperation in preventing and combating organised crime, terrorism and other forms of serious crime affecting two or more Member States‚ÄĚ. To be in a position to collect and connect information from different sources, Europol has over the years concluded numerous operational agreements (including the exchange of personal data) and strategic agreements (not including the exchange of personal data) with EU bodies as well as with third States and organisations. This paper is a case study on the cooperation between Europol and the United States. It considers the political, legal and operational aspects of the cooperative relations between the EU law enforcement agency and its counterparts in the US. Following research methods are used: an analysis of relevant legal and policy documents, a study of relevant literature and a targeted series of interviews with key figures

    Feasibility study for a Council of Europe Convention on Counterfeit Medicines/Pharmaceutical Crime

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    Austenite Formation and Manganese Partitioning during Double Soaking of an Ultralow Carbon Medium-Manganese Steel

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    Double soaking (DS) is a thermal processing route intended to produce austenite‚Äďmartensite microstructures in steels containing austenite-stabilizing additions and consists of intercritical annealing (primary soaking), followed by heating and brief isothermal holding at an increased temperature (secondary soaking), and quenching. Herein, experimental dilatometry during DS of a medium-manganese (Mn) steel with nominally 7 wt% Mn and an ultralow residual carbon concentration, in combination with phase-field simulations of austenite formation during secondary soaking, is presented. The feasibility of maintaining heterogeneous Mn distributions during DS is demonstrated and insight is provided on the effects of the secondary soaking temperature and prior Mn distribution on the ferrite-to-austenite phase transformation during the secondary soaking portion of the DS treatment

    Traversing TechSex:Benefits and risks in digitally mediated sex and relationships

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    Background: Digital technologies play a significant role in people’s sexual and intimate lives via smart phones, cameras, dating apps and social media. Although there is a large body of research on the potential risks posed by these technologies, research on benefits and pleasures is limited. Methods: This study explored digital sexual practices, including perceptions of risks and benefits among a sample of Australian adults (n = 445). Data were collected in 2020 via an online survey. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were undertaken to identify significant relationships between demographic variables and the use of technologies in relation to perceived risks and benefits. The mean age of participants was 42 years, over half were women (58.5%) and identified as heterosexual (61.1%). Results: Findings reveal that use of digital media was common in participants’ sex lives and relationships; 60.3% of participants had viewed pornography online, 34.9% had used dating apps, and 33.9% had sent sexual or naked self-images to another person. Over one in three reported positive outcomes from this: 38.2% felt emotionally connected to their partners due to online communication; 38.0% agreed that digital technologies facilitated closer connections; however, the majority of participants were aware of potential risks associated with online sexual engagement, particularly non-consensual exposure of their sexual or naked images, with women expressing greater concern. Conclusions: Policy, legal and educational responses should be based on holistic understanding of digital sexual engagement, acknowledging the ways in which technologies can support sexual relationships while also building people’s knowledge and capacity to manage risks
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