4,551 research outputs found

    Role of Ligand Conformation on Nanoparticle-Protein Interactions

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    Engineered biomedical nanoparticles (NPs) administered via intravenous routes are prone to associate to serum proteins. The protein corona can mask the NP surface functionalization and hamper the delivery of the NP to its biological target. The design of corona-free NPs relies on our understanding of the chemical-physical features of the NP surface driving the interaction with serum proteins. Here, we address, by computational means, the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and a prototypical monolayer-protected Au nanoparticle. We show that both the chemical composition (charge, hydrophobicity) and the conformational preferences of the ligands decorating the NP surface affect the NP propensity to bind HSA

    On the stability of solutions of semilinear elliptic equations with Robin boundary conditions on Riemannian manifolds

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    We investigate existence and nonexistence of stationary stable nonconstant solutions, i.e. patterns, of semilinear parabolic problems in bounded domains of Riemannian manifolds satisfying Robin boundary conditions. These problems arise in several models in applications, in particular in Mathematical Biology. We point out the role both of the nonlinearity and of geometric objects such as the Ricci curvature of the manifold, the second fundamental form of the boundary of the domain and its mean curvature. Special attention is devoted to surfaces of revolution and to spherically symmetric manifolds, where we prove refined results

    Implementation and Performance of the High-Level Trigger electron and photon selection for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

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    The ATLAS three-tier trigger system faces the challenge to reduce the incoming rate of 40 MHz to â¼ 200 Hz. It consists of hardware based Level-1, and a software based High-Level Trigger (HLT). In this talk an overview of the selection algorithms for electrons and photons will be given as well as the expected performance. The electron and photon trigger menu and the strategy for the initial phase of LHC exploitation

    Differences in oral health status in elite athletes according to sport modalities

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    Oral health status may affect physical and sports performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health habits of elite athletes according to the performed sports type. A sample of 186 elite athletes divided into individual sports (n = 74; 53 men and 21 women; 24.9 ± 9.3 years) and team sports (n = 112; 97 men and 15 women; 24.5 ± 4.8 years) participated in the study. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), the oral health impact profile (OHIP), and the diet assessment of caries risk (DACR) were evaluated to assess their oral health status. Athletes in individual modalities had a lower number in total teeth, healthy teeth, and restoration index (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this group showed a greater number of missing (p < 0.001) and decayed teeth (p < 0.05) and a greater DMFT index (p < 0.001). A relationship between sports modality and prevalence of malocclusions (p < 0.01), periodontal plaque (p < 0.05), and the habit of consuming energy drinks (p < 0.05) was also highlighted. Elite athletes who compete in individual sports presented a worse oral situation

    Rodoretto talc mine (To, Italy): studies for the optimizationof the cemented backfilling

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    The underground talc mine of Fontane (Prali, near Torino, North West of Italy) has been exploited for decades by conventional cut and fill method using loose fill and, in the last 30 years, using cemented backfill and exploiting the orebody downwards. With this exploitation approach, the orebody recovery and the safety of the mining operations have been greatly improved. In the new mine section, located in Rodoretto, a detailed numerical modelling has been carried out to simulate the various geometrical and mining conditions and the fill properties. In the meantime an experimental research carried out to check the possibility of using the waste rock for the fill mix have been carried out in order to establish a procedure able to reduce the filling cost

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Spinal Cord Injury: Current Options, Limitations, and Future of Cell Therapy

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    Spinal cord injury (SCI) constitutes an inestimable public health issue. The most crucial phase in the pathophysiological process of SCI concerns the well-known secondary injury, which is the uncontrolled and destructive cascade occurring later with aberrant molecular signaling, inflammation, vascular changes, and secondary cellular dysfunctions. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents one of the most important and promising tested strategies. Their appeal, among the other sources and types of stem cells, increased because of their ease of isolation/preservation and their properties. Nevertheless, encouraging promise from preclinical studies was followed by weak and conflicting results in clinical trials. In this review, the therapeutic role of MSCs is discussed, together with their properties, application, limitations, and future perspectives

    Hyperthermic Perfusion 16 Years After its First Clinical Applications

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    It is known that above-normal temperatures (42°-42.5°C) provoke selective damage to neoplastic cells. We used heated circulating blood as a method for heat transfer on patients with limb tumors. From October 1964 to December 1979, we treated a total of 198 patients with hyperthermic perfusion for melanoma of the limbs (91), osteosarcoma (57), and soft tissue sarcoma (50). For melanoma patients, the five-year survival rate, excluding Stage IV, was 60%. For patients with soft tissue sarcoma, the five-year survival rates were 53% and 56% for hyperthermic perfusion and hyperthermic antiblastic perfusion. respectively. For 29 patients with osteosarcoma, hyperthermic perfusion was combined with systematic amputation ofthe limb for a 60% survival rate over a five-year period. Newer studies with osteosarcoma patients involve a multistep treatment that saves the tumor-bearing limb without reducing survival rates. Our 16-year clinical trial demonstrates that hyperthermia is effective in curing some tumors of the limbs, especially osteosarcoma and melanoma. We believe that perfusion remains the most reliable heat transfer method for loco-regional treatment and perhaps even for whole-body treatment for limb tumors
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