18 research outputs found

    A Catalog of GALEX Ultraviolet Emission from Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

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    We have performed a comprehensive study of the UV emission detected from AGB stars by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Of the 468 AGB stars in our sample, 316 were observed by GALEX. In the NUV bandpass (λeff2310\lambda_{\rm eff} \sim 2310z A), 179 AGB stars were detected and 137 were not detected. Only 38 AGB stars were detected in the FUV bandpass (λeff1528\lambda_{\rm eff} \sim1528 A). We find that NUV emission is correlated with optical to near infrared emission leading to higher detection fractions among the brightest, hence closest, AGB stars. Comparing the AGB time-variable visible phased light curves to corresponding GALEX NUV phased light curves we find evidence that for some AGB stars the NUV emission varies in phase with the visible light curves. We also find evidence that the NUV emission, and possibly, the FUV emission are anti-correlated with the circumstellar envelope density. These results suggest that the origin of the GALEX-detected UV emission is an inherent characteristic of the AGB stars that can most likely be traced to a combination of photospheric and chromospheric emission. In most cases, UV detections of AGB stars are not likely to be indicative of the presence of binary companions.Comment: Accepted by ApJ; go spurs go

    A New Radio Molecular Line Survey of Planetary Nebulae: HNC/HCN as a Diagnostic of Ultraviolet Irradiation

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    Certain planetary nebulae contain shells, filaments, or globules of cold gas and dust whose heating and chemistry are likely driven by UV and X-ray emission from their central stars and from wind-collision-generated shocks. We present the results of a survey of molecular line emission in the 88-236 GHz range from nine nearby (<1.5 kpc) planetary nebulae spanning a range of UV and X-ray luminosities, using the 30 m telescope of the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique. Rotational transitions of thirteen molecules, including CO isotopologues and chemically important trace species, were observed and the results compared with and augmented by previous studies of molecular gas in PNe. Lines of the molecules HCO+, HNC, HCN, and CN, which were detected in most objects, represent new detections for five planetary nebulae in our study. Specifically, we present the first detections of 13CO (1-0, 2-1), HCO+, CN, HCN, and HNC in NGC 6445; HCO+ in BD+303639; 13CO (2-1), CN, HCN, and HNC in NGC 6853; and 13CO (2-1) and CN in NGC 6772. Flux ratios were analyzed to identify correlations between the central star and/or nebular UV and X-ray luminosities and the molecular chemistries of the nebulae. This analysis reveals a surprisingly robust dependence of the HNC/HCN line ratio on PN central star UV luminosity. There exists no such clear correlation between PN X-rays and various diagnostics of PN molecular chemistry. The correlation between HNC/HCN ratio and central star UV luminosity demonstrates the potential of molecular emission line studies of PNe for improving our understanding of the role that high-energy radiation plays in the heating and chemistry of photodissociation regions.Comment: 17 pages, 17 figures, 6 tables, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Serendipitous Chandra X-ray Detection of a Hot Bubble within the Planetary Nebula NGC 5315

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    We report the serendipitous detection of the planetary nebula NGC 5315 by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Chandra imaging spectroscopy results indicate that the X-rays from this PN, which harbors a Wolf-Rayet (WR) central star, emanate from a TX 2.5 × 106 K plasma generated via the same wind collisions that have cleared a compact ( 8000 AU radius) central cavity within the nebula. The inferred X-ray luminosity of NGC 5315 is 2.5 × 1032 erg s−1 (0.3-2.0 keV), placing this object among the most luminous such “hot bubble” X-ray sources yet detected within PNe. With the X-ray detection of NGC 5315, objects with WR-type central stars now constitute a clear majority – 2 – of known examples of diffuse X-ray sources among PNe; all such “hot bubble” PN X-ray sources display well-defined, quasi-continuous optical rims. We therefore assert that X-ray-luminous hot bubbles are characteristic of young PNe with large central star wind kinetic energies and closed bubble morphologies. However, the evidence at hand also suggests that processes such as wind and bubble temporal evolution, as well as heat conduction and/or mixing of hot bubble and nebular gas, ultimately govern the luminosity and temperature of superheated plasma within PNe

    Limits on the HI content of the dwarf galaxy Hydra II

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    Sensitive 21cm HI observations have been made with the Green Bank Telescope toward the newly-discovered Local Group dwarf galaxy Hydra II, which may lie within the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. No neutral hydrogen was detected. Our 5-sigma limit of MHI < 210 solar masses for a 15 km/s linewidth gives a gas-to-luminosity ratio MHI/L_V < 2.6 x 10^{-2} Mo / Lo. The limits on HI mass and MHI/L_V are typical of dwarf galaxies found within a few hundred kpc of the Milky Way. Whatever the origin of Hydra II, its neutral gas properties are not unusual.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Kinematic and morphological modeling of the bipolar nebula Sa2-237

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    We present [OIII]500.7nm and Halpha+[NII] images and long-slit, high resolution echelle spectra in the same spectral regions of Sa2--237, a possible bipolar planetary nebula. The image shows a bipolar nebula of about 34" extent, with a narrow waist, and showing strong point symmetry about the central object, indicating it's likely binary nature. The long slit spectra were taken over the long axis of the nebula, and show a distinct ``eight'' shaped pattern in the velocity--space plot, and a maximum projected outflow velocity of V=106km/s, both typical of expanding bipolar planetary nebulae. By model fitting the shape and spectrum of the nebula simultaneously, we derive the inclination of the long axis to be 70 degrees, and the maximum space velocity of expansion to be 308 km/s. Due to asymmetries in the velocities we adopt a new value for the system's heliocentric radial velocity of -30km/s. We use the IRAS and 21cm radio fluxes, the energy distribution, and the projected size of Sa2-237 to estimate it's distance to be 2.1+-0.37kpc. At this distance Sa2-237 has a luminosity of 340 Lsun, a size of 0.37pc, and -- assuming constant expansion velocity -- a nebular age of 624 years. The above radial velocity and distance place Sa2--237 in the disk of the Galaxy at z=255pc, albeit with somewhat peculiar kinematics.Comment: 10pp, 4 fig