465 research outputs found

    Interleukin-23 and Th17 Cells in the Control of Gut Inflammation

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    Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, the major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in humans, have been traditionally associated with exaggerated and poorly controlled T helper (Th) type 1 or Th2 cell response, respectively. More recent studies have, however, shown that IBDs are also characterized by a sustained production of cytokines made by a distinct lineage of Th cells, termed Th17 cells. The demonstration that Th17-related cytokines cause pathology in many organs, including the gut, and that expansion and maintenance of Th17 cell responses require the activity of IL-23, a cytokine made in excess in the gut of IBD patients has contributed to elucidate new pathways of intestinal tissue damage as well as to design new therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss the available data supporting the role of the IL-23/Th17 axis in the modulation of intestinal tissue inflammation

    Interleukin-21: A New Mediator of Inflammation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by excessive production of a variety of autoantibodies and a wide range of clinical manifestations. Pathogenesis of SLE is complex and not fully understood. There is however evidence that B and T cells are critical to the development of disease, and that T cell-derived cytokines are involved in the SLE-associated inflammatory response. One such cytokine seems to be interleukin (IL)-21, the latest identified member of the γ-chain-related cytokine family. IL-21 has an important role in the control of the growth, survival, differentiation, and function of both T and B cells, and excessive production of IL-21 has been associated with the development of multiple immune-mediated diseases. Here we review data supporting the involvement of IL-21 in the pathogenesis of SLE

    Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention by Mesalazine and Its Derivatives

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    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) face an increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Independent factors associated with increased risk include long disease duration, extensive colonic involvement, young age at onset of IBD, severity of inflammation, primary sclerosing cholangitis, backwash ileitis, and a family history of CRC, thus emphasising the role of intestinal inflammation as an underlying mechanism. This notion is also supported by the demonstration that the use of certain drugs used to attenuate the ongoing mucosal inflammation, such as mesalazine, seems to associate with a reduced incidence of colitis-associated CRC. In the last decade, work from many laboratories has contributed to delineate the mechanisms by which mesalazine alters CRC cell behaviour. In this paper, we review the available experimental data supporting the ability of mesalazine and its derivatives to interfere with intracellular signals involved in CRC cell growth

    The gut-skin axis in health and disease: A paradigm with therapeutic implications.

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    As crucial interface organs gut and skin have much in common. Therefore it is unsurprising that several gut pathologies have skin co-morbidities. Nevertheless, the reason for this remains ill explored, and neither mainstream gastroenterology nor dermatology research have systematically investigated the ‘gut-skin axis'. Here, in reviewing the field, we propose several mechanistic levels on which gut and skin may interact under physiological and pathological circumstances. We focus on the gut microbiota, with its huge metabolic capacity, and the role of dietary components as potential principle actors along the gut-skin axis. We suggest that metabolites from either the diet or the microbiota are skin accessible. After defining open key questions around the nature of these metabolites, how they are sensed, and which cutaneous changes they can induce, we propose that understanding of these pathways will lead to novel therapeutic strategies based on targeting one organ to improve the health of the other

    {STAT}3 Interactors as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Cancer Treatment

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    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) mediate essential signaling pathways in different biological processes, including immune responses, hematopoiesis, and neurogenesis. Among the STAT members, STAT3 plays crucial roles in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. While STAT3 activation is transient in physiological conditions, STAT3 becomes persistently activated in a high percentage of solid and hematopoietic malignancies (e.g., melanoma, multiple myeloma, breast, prostate, ovarian, and colon cancers), thus contributing to malignant transformation and progression. This makes STAT3 an attractive therapeutic target for cancers. Initial strategies aimed at inhibiting STAT3 functions have focused on blocking the action of its activating kinases or sequestering its DNA binding ability. More recently, the diffusion of proteomic-based techniques, which have allowed for the identification and characterization of novel STAT3-interacting proteins able to modulate STAT3 activity via its subcellular localization, interact with upstream kinases, and recruit transcriptional machinery, has raised the possibility to target such cofactors to specifically restrain STAT3 oncogenic functions. In this article, we summarize the available data about the function of STAT3 interactors in malignant cells and discuss their role as potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment

    Interleukin-21 in cancer immunotherapy: Friend or foe?

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    Interleukin (IL)-21, a cytokine produced by activated conventional CD4+ T lymphocytes and Natural Killer T cells, drives anti-tumor immunity in the skin and kidney. However IL-21 is also pro-inflammatory in many tissues and promotes colitis-associated colon cancer. Understanding the biology of IL-21 in these different situations is needed to ensure maximal therapeutic benefit

    Albendazole negatively regulates keratinocyte proliferation

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    Abstract Background: Increased keratinocyte proliferation occurs in the skin of psoriatic patients and is supposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Compounds interfering with keratinocyte proliferation could be useful in the management of psoriatic patients. Aim: To investigate whether albendazole, an anti-helmintic drug that regulates epithelial cell function in various systems, inhibits keratinocyte proliferation in models of psoriasis. Methods: Aldara-treated mice received daily topical application of albendazole. Keratinocyte proliferation and keratin (K) 6 and K16 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting and inflammatory cells/mediators were analysed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. In human keratinocytes (HEKa and HaCaT) treated with albendazole, cell cycle and proliferation, keratins and cell cycle-associated factors were evaluated by flow cytometry, colorimetric assay and Western blotting respectively. Results: Aldara-treated mice given albendazole exhibited reduced epidermal thickness, decreased number of proliferating keratinocytes and K6/K16 expression. Reduction of CD3- and Ly6G-positive cells in the skin of albendazole-treated mice associated with inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-36, CCL17, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5 expression. Treatment of keratinocytes with albendazole reduced K6/K16 expression and reversibly inhibited cell growth by promoting accumulation of cells in S-phase. This phenomenon was accompanied by down-regulation of CDC25A, a phosphatase regulating progression of cell cycle through S-phase, and PKR-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of eIF2α, an inhibitor of CDC25 translation. In Aldara-treated mice, albendazole activated PKR, enhanced eIF2α phosphorylation and reduced CDC25A expression. Conclusions: Data show that albendazole inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and exerts therapeutic effect in a murine model of psoriasis

    Interleukin-34 Enhances the Tumor Promoting Function of Colorectal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts

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    In colorectal cancer (CRC), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumor growth and progression through the synthesis of various molecules targeting the neoplastic cells. Here, we demonstrate that IL-34, a cytokine highly expressed in CRC tissue, regulates the function of CAFs in a paracrine and autocrine manner. Specifically, IL-34 induces normal fibroblasts (NFs) to acquire a cellular phenotype resembling that of CAFs, while IL-34 knockdown in CAFs reduces their tumorigenic properties and proliferation. Moreover, IL-34 stimulates NFs to produce netrin-1 and b-FGF—two factors that enhance CRC cell growth and migration. Altogether, our data support the involvement of IL-34 in CRC. Abstract The stromal compartment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is marked by the presence of large numbers of fibroblasts, termed cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which promote CRC growth and progression through the synthesis of various molecules targeting the neoplastic cells. Interleukin (IL)-34, a cytokine over-produced by CRC cells, stimulates CRC cell growth. Since IL-34 also regulates the function of inflammatory fibroblasts, we hypothesized that it could regulate the tumor promoting function of colorectal CAFs. By immunostaining and real-time PCR, we initially showed that IL-34 was highly produced by CAFs and to lesser extent by normal fibroblasts isolated from non-tumoral colonic mucosa of CRC patients. CAFs and normal fibroblasts expressed the functional receptors of IL-34. IL-34 induced normal fibroblasts to express α-SMA, vimentin and fibroblast activation protein and enhanced fibroblast growth, thus generating a cellular phenotype resembling that of CAFs. Consistently, knockdown of IL-34 in CAFs with an antisense oligonucleotide (AS) decreased expression of such markers and inhibited cell proliferation. Co-culture of CRC cells with IL-34 AS-treated CAFs supernatants resulted in less cancer cell proliferation and migration. Among CAF-derived molecules known to promote CRC cell growth/migration, only netrin-1 and basic-fibroblast growth factor were induced by IL-34. Data suggest a role for IL-34 in the control of colorectal CAF function
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