333 research outputs found

    Ischemic heart disease pathophysiology paradigms overview. from plaque activation to microvascular dysfunction

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    Ischemic heart disease still represents a large burden on individuals and health care resources worldwide. By conventions, it is equated with atherosclerotic plaque due to flow-limiting obstruction in large–medium sized coronary arteries. However, clinical, angiographic and autoptic findings suggest a multifaceted pathophysiology for ischemic heart disease and just some cases are caused by severe or complicated atherosclerotic plaques. Currently there is no well-defined assessment of ischemic heart disease pathophysiology that satisfies all the observations and sometimes the underlying mechanism to everyday ischemic heart disease ward cases is misleading. In order to better examine this complicated disease and to provide future perspectives, it is important to know and analyze the pathophysiological mechanisms that underline it, because ischemic heart disease is not always determined by atherosclerotic plaque complication. Therefore, in order to have a more complete comprehension of ischemic heart disease we propose an overview of the available pathophysiological paradigms, from plaque activation to microvascular dysfunction

    The synergistic effect of chlorotoxin-mApoE in boosting drug-loaded liposomes across the BBB

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    We designed liposomes dually functionalized with ApoE-derived peptide (mApoE) and chlorotoxin (ClTx) to improve their blood-brain barrier (BBB) crossing. Our results demonstrated the synergistic activity of ClTx-mApoE in boosting doxorubicin-loaded liposomes across the BBB, keeping the anti-tumour activity of the drug loaded: mApoE acts promoting cellular uptake, while ClTx promotes exocytosis of liposomes

    Experts’ consensus on the definition and management of high risk multiple myeloma

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    High risk multiple myeloma (HRMM) at diagnosis is currently recognized according to the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) which was set up in 2015. Since then, new clinical and biological prognostic factors have been developed, which could implement the definition of High Risk (HR) category. We conducted a survey in order to identify which additional parameters, both clinical and biological, are considered more useful for the clinical practice and to evaluate if the management of Multiple Myeloma (MM) should change on the basis of the risk category. A questionnaire, consisting of 8 statements, was submitted to 6 Italian experts, from the European Myeloma Network (EMN) Research Italy, using the Delphi method. The colleagues were asked to answer each question using a scale between 0 and 100. If a statement did not reach at least 75 out of 100 points from all the participants, it was rephrased on the basis of the proposal of the experts and resubmitted in a second or further round, until a consensus was reached among all. From the first round of the survey a strong consensus was reached regarding the opportunity to revise the R-ISS including chromosome 1 abnormality, TP53 mutation or deletion, circulating plasma cells by next generation flow and extramedullary plasmacytomas. No consensus was reached for the definition of “double hit” MM and for the application in clinical practice of treatment strategies based on the risk category. In the second round of the Delphi questionnaire, “double-hit” MM was recognized by the association of at least two high-risk cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities. Moreover, the experts agreed to reserve an intensified treatment only to specific conditions, such as plasma cell leukaemia or patients with multiple extramedullary plasmacytomas, while they admitted that there are not sufficient real word data in order to modify treatment on the basis of MRD assessment in clinical practice. This survey suggests that the definition of HRMM should be implemented by additional clinical and biological risk factors, that will be useful to guide treatment in the future

    Molecular and clinical characterization of albinism in a large cohort of Italian patients.

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    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular basis of albinism in a large cohort of Italian patients showing typical ocular landmarks of the disease and to provide a full characterization of the clinical ophthalmic manifestations. METHODS: DNA samples from 45 patients with ocular manifestations of albinism were analyzed by direct sequencing analysis of five genes responsible for albinism: TYR, P, TYRP1, SLC45A2 (MATP), and OA1. All patients studied showed a variable degree of skin and hair hypopigmentation. Eighteen patients with distinct mutations in each gene associated with OCA were evaluated by detailed ophthalmic analysis, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus autofluorescence. RESULTS: Disease-causing mutations were identified in more than 95% of analyzed patients with OCA (28/45 [62.2%] cases with two or more mutations; 15/45 [33.3%] cases with one mutation). Thirty-five different mutant alleles were identified of which 15 were novel. Mutations in TYR were the most frequent (73.3%), whereas mutations in P occurred more rarely (13.3%) than previously reported. Novel mutations were also identified in rare loci such as TYRP1 and MATP. Mutations in the OA1 gene were not detected. Clinical assessment revealed that patients with iris and macular pigmentation had significantly higher visual acuity than did severe hypopigmented phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: TYR gene mutations represent a relevant cause of oculocutaneous albinism in Italy, whereas mutations in P present a lower frequency than that found in other populations. Clinical analysis revealed that the severity of the ocular manifestations depends on the degree of retinal pigmentation

    Carfilzomib, bendamustine, and dexamethasone in patients with advanced multiple myeloma: The EMN09 phase 1/2 study of the European Myeloma Network

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    Background: Combined therapy with carfilzomib, bendamustine, and dexamethasone was evaluated in this multicenter phase 1/2 trial conducted within the European Myeloma Network (EMN09 trial). Methods: Sixty-three patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma who had received 652 lines of prior therapy were included. The phase 1 portion of the study determined the maximum tolerated dose of carfilzomib with bendamustine set at 70 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8. After 8 cycles, responding patients received maintenance therapy with carfilzomib and dexamethasone until progression. Results: On the basis of the phase 1 results, the recommended phase 2 dose for carfilzomib was 27 mg/m2 twice weekly in weeks 1, 2, and 3. Fifty-two percent of patients achieved a partial response or better, and 32% reached a very good partial response or better. The clinical benefit rate was 93%. After a median follow-up of 21.9 months, the median progression-free survival was 11.6 months, and the median overall survival was 30.4 months. The reported grade 653 hematologic adverse events (AEs) were lymphopenia (29%), neutropenia (25%), and thrombocytopenia (22%). The main nonhematologic grade 653 AEs were pneumonia, thromboembolic events (10%), cardiac AEs (8%), and hypertension (2%). Conclusions: In heavily pretreated patients who have relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, combined carfilzomib, bendamustine, and dexamethasone is an effective treatment option administered in the outpatient setting. Infection prophylaxis and attention to patients with cardiovascular predisposition are required
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