1,124 research outputs found

    Tempestività di intervento nella colica renale: aspetti fisiopatologici

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    Renal colic is one of the most common diagnoses of emergency room access and ureteral stone is one of the most common causes of renal colic due to ureteral obstruction. Ureteral obstruction initially causes an increase of intraureteral pressure, which returns to baseline values ‚ÄČ‚ÄČafter a short time after the reduction in urine production and the progressive increase in the circumference and ureter length. Reduction in urinary flow depends on the renal hemodynamic response, which has three phases: initial vasodilation of the preglomerular afferent artery; vasoconstriction of the postglomerular efferent artery; and, finally, vasoconstriction of the preglomerular afferent artery. Renal parenchyma ischemia is associated with oxidative stress, inflammatory infiltrate and subsequent apoptosis of tubular cells and interstitial fibrosis. This degenerative pathological process tends to continue even after relatively early removal of the obstruction and despite the restoration of renal hemodynamics. Fibrosis progression is associated with alterations in renal function with hyperfiltration in the surviving nephronic population and alterations in tubular function. These pathophysiological aspects have to be considered in the management of patients with renal colic and ureteral obstruction. Expulsive treatment of renal stones should be carefully planned by accurate selection of patients and frequent follow-up controls. When the obstruction is severe or the expulsion time is prolonged, early treatment or temporary urinary diversion with deferred treatment should be considered. The time limit for awaiting spontaneous stone passage is not well defined and varies depending on the degree of obstruction and possible complicating factors, however it may be prudent to not exceed two to three weeks

    Panta Rhei: an evolving scientific decade with a focus on water systems

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    Abstract. The paper presents an overview of the activity of Panta Rhei, the research decade launched in 2013 by the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. After one year of activity Panta Rhei has already stimulated several initiatives and a worldwide involvement of researchers in hydrology and sister disciplines. Providing an overview of the status of Panta Rhei is essential to further promote the participation of scientists and the completion of its structure, which is currently being shaped by receiving Research Theme and Working Group proposals from the community

    Drug-induced gynecomastia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

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    Objective: To review the evidence concerning treatment-related gynecomastia in patients taking spironolactone, antiandrogens, 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, lipid-lowering and psychotropic drugs. Material and methods: A search of Medline and EMBASE was performed up to 30 June 2021. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of a drug belonging to these classes versus placebo or versus a drug of the same class. Results: A total of 32 randomized controlled trials were included in the final review. There was an increased odds of gynecomastia in men receiving antiandrogens (OR = 17.38, 95% CI: 11.26 to 26.82; 6 trials, 9599 participants) and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors compared to controls (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.06; 7 series out of 6 trials, 34860 participants). The use of spironolactone in mixed gender populations was characterized by significantly higher odds of having gynecomastia compared to controls (OR = 8.39, 95% CI: 5.03 to 13.99; 14 trials, 3745 participants). No placebo-controlled trials focusing on the risk of gynecomastia in patients taking antipsychotic drugs was available, although there was a significant difference in the odds of having gynecomastia in a comparison between risperidone and quetiapine (OR = 4.32, 95% CI: 1.31 to 14.27; 3 trials, 343 participants). Limited evidence about the effects of statins on mammary glands was found. Conclusions: Antiandrogens and to a lesser extent 5 alphareductase inhibitors and spironolactone are associated with an increased risk of developing gynecomastia. Such effect can be explained by a modification of the testosterone to estradiol ratio. Gynecomastia (and galactorrhea) associated to the use of conventional and certain atypical antipsychotics can be related to high prolactin levels

    Emergency Department as an epidemiological observatory of Human Mobility: the experience of the Moroccan population

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    We conducted a retrospective study of the accesses to the Emergency Department registered from January 2000 to December 2014 in 5 major hospitals in the Metropolitan Area of Rome. We extrapolated data relating to patients of Moroccan origin from about 5 million total accesses, so we compared with Italians data which, in the same period, came to ED. The Moroccan population is distinguished by a larger number of diagnoses belonging to the ICD-9 code of Infectious Diseases and, more precisely, to Respiratory Infectious Diseases. There are also no differences in the assignment of such diagnoses to Moroccans with Italian citizenship, and this led to think that this could play an important role in the use of the ED and moreover that enrollment to the National Health Service may reduce its inappropriate use. Regarding to Degenerative Disorders, the result of our analysis is quite emblematic, showing that the accesses to the ED is due to Cardiovascular Diseases: 6.33% of Italians' accesses against 1.81% of Moroccans and 2.36% of Moroccans with Italian citizenship. The main explanation for this difference is, obviously, due to the age of the population: about 60% of Moroccans who accessed to ED was less than 40 years old. It is interesting how, in the field of ‚Äč‚ÄčCardiovascular Diseases, Moroccans have a lower percentage of diagnosis compared to Italians for acute diseases and a greater percentage of diagnoses for chronic diseases, suggesting once again that accesses to ED for migrants often is due to the inability to use the general services of the National Health Service. In conclusion, from the point of view of the Emergency Department, Migration Medicine still has Infectious Diseases as the main reason for access. Degenerative Disorders remain a prerogative of the Italians, but we could certainly assume that the Moroccan population would develop at some point with the aging

    The association between prostatitis and prostate cancer. Systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Objective: The main outcome of this review was the association between a history of clinical chronic prostatitis (NIH category II or III) and a histologically confirmed diagnosis of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Crude odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to analyze dichotomous data. For analysis of pooled data we adopted a random-effects model and the inverse variance weighing method. Heterogeneity was assessed by calculating the I2 value. Results: Out of 2794 screened records, we retrieved 16 full-text articles written in English, reporting the data of 15 case-control studies, involving 422.943 patients. Pooled analysis resulted in a significant crude odds ratio of 1.83 (95% CI: 1.43 to 2.35; P < 0.00001). The total set of data showed considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 91%). Both the Egger's test and the Begg's test for funnel plot asymmetry did not reach statistical significance. The 'trim and fill' method applied to the funnel plot imputed 3 missing studies and the resulting adjusted estimate of the odds ratio was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.38 to 3.22). According to GRADE criteria, the overall quality of the meta-analysis data is low, mainly due to the presence of bias, confounders and extreme effect size outliers. Five among the included studies reported data assessed in 8015 African-American subjects. Pooled analysis resulted in a non-significant crude odds ratio of 1.59 (95% CI: 0.71 to 3.57; P = 0.26), and considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 90%). Conclusions: Meta-analysis of 15 case-control studies shows that a history of clinical chronic prostatitis can significantly increase the odds for prostate cancer in the general population, whereas such association in African-American individuals remains uncertain

    Deregulation of MiR-34b/Sox2 Predicts Prostate Cancer Progression.

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    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will have an indolent and curable disease, whereas approximately 15% of these patients will rapidly progress to a castrate-resistant and metastatic stage with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the identification of molecular signature(s) that detect men at risk of progressing disease remains a pressing and still unmet need for these patients. Here, we used an integrated discovery platform combining prostate cancer cell lines, a Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model and clinically-annotated human tissue samples to identify loss of expression of microRNA-34b as consistently associated with prostate cancer relapse. Mechanistically, this was associated with epigenetics silencing of the MIR34B/C locus and increased DNA copy number loss, selectively in androgen-dependent prostate cancer. In turn, loss of miR-34b resulted in downstream deregulation and overexpression of the stemness marker, Sox2. These findings identify loss of miR-34b as a robust biomarker for prostate cancer progression in androgen-sensitive tumors, and anticipate a potential role of progenitor/stem cell signaling in this stage of disease

    Aberrant Crosstalk between Insulin Signaling and mTOR in Young Down Syndrome Individuals Revealed by Neuronal-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

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    INTRODUCTION: Intellectual disability, accelerated aging, and early-onset Alzheimer-like neurodegeneration are key brain pathological features of Down syndrome (DS). Although growing research aims at the identification of molecular pathways underlying the aging trajectory of DS population, data on infants and adolescents with DS are missing. METHODS: Neuronal-derived extracellular vesicles (nEVs) were isolated form healthy donors (HDs, n = 17) and DS children (n = 18) from 2 to 17 years of age and nEV content was interrogated for markers of insulin/mTOR pathways. RESULTS: nEVs isolated from DS children were characterized by a significant increase in pIRS1Ser636, a marker of insulin resistance, and the hyperactivation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K axis downstream from IRS1, likely driven by the higher inhibition of Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). High levels of pGSK3ő≤Ser9 were also found. CONCLUSIONS: The alteration of the insulin-signaling/mTOR pathways represents an early event in DS brain and likely contributes to the cerebral dysfunction and intellectual disability observed in this unique population

    Renal Cell Carcinoma as a Metabolic Disease: An Update on Main Pathways, Potential Biomarkers, and Therapeutic Targets

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    : Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most frequent histological kidney cancer subtype. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying the genetic and metabolic alterations driving ccRCC development. In particular, an integrated approach using transcriptomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics has led to a better understanding of ccRCC as a metabolic disease. The metabolic profiling of this cancer could help define and predict its behavior in terms of aggressiveness, prognosis, and therapeutic responsiveness, and would be an innovative strategy for choosing the optimal therapy for a specific patient. This review article describes the current state-of-the-art in research on ccRCC metabolic pathways and potential therapeutic applications. In addition, the clinical implication of pharmacometabolomic intervention is analyzed, which represents a new field for novel stage-related and patient-tailored strategies according to the specific susceptibility to new classes of drugs

    Clinical factors affecting semen improvement after microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy: which subfertile patients benefit from surgery?

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    Background: The exact mechanism of varicocele-related infertility is still elusive, therefore, the current challenges for its management lie in determining which patients stand to benefit most from surgical correction. The authors aimed to assess the clinical factors affecting semen improvement after left microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy (MSV) in relation to patient age, ultrasound varicocele grading (USVG), and presence of a right subclinical varicocele (RSV). Methods: From 2010 to 2017 a total of 228 infertile patients underwent left MSV for clinical varicocele. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the cohort and verify the surgical benefit in terms of semen improvement, in addition, subsets of patients were selected according to clinical covariates. Logistic regression modeling was applied to evaluate the presence of RSV, operative time, age, and USVG as explanatory variables. Results: Sperm concentration (SC), progressive sperm motility (PSM), and normal sperm morphology (NSM) increased significantly after surgery (p = 0.002; p = 0.011; p = 0.024; respectively). Mean SC improved after MSV in &gt; 35 year-old patients and the grade 3 USVG group (p = 0.01; p = 0.02; respectively). Logistic regression modeling showed a that the probability of SC improvement was 76% lower in subjects presenting RSV (p = 0.011). In addition, patients with a grade 3 USVG presented a three-times greater probability of SC improvement compared with patients with a lower USVG (p = 0.035). In addition, older patients showed a greater probability of SC improvement after MSV (p = 0.041). Conclusions: MSV is an effective varicocele-related infertility treatment that should also be offered to older patients. In addition, patients with a higher USVG benefit from surgery. In infertile men with an RSV in association with a left clinical disease, a bilateral varicocele repair should be considered

    Artificial intelligence and radiomics in evaluation of kidney lesions: a comprehensive literature review

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    : Radiomics and artificial intelligence (AI) may increase the differentiation of benign from malignant kidney lesions, differentiation of angiomyolipoma (AML) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC), differentiation of oncocytoma from RCC, differentiation of different subtypes of RCC, to predict Fuhrman grade, to predict gene mutation through molecular biomarkers and to predict treatment response in metastatic RCC undergoing immunotherapy. Neural networks analyze imaging data. Statistical, geometrical, textural features derived are giving quantitative data of contour, internal heterogeneity and gray zone features of lesions. A comprehensive literature review was performed, until July 2022. Studies investigating the diagnostic value of radiomics in differentiation of renal lesions, grade prediction, gene alterations, molecular biomarkers and ongoing clinical trials have been analyzed. The application of AI and radiomics could lead to improved sensitivity, specificity, accuracy in detecting and differentiating between renal lesions. Standardization of scanner protocols will improve preoperative differentiation between benign, low-risk cancers and clinically significant renal cancers and holds the premises to enhance the diagnostic ability of imaging tools to characterize renal lesions
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