781 research outputs found

    Antifungal susceptibility of invasive yeast isolates in Italy: the GISIA3 study in critically ill patients

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Yeasts are a common cause of invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients. Antifungal susceptibility testing results of clinically significant fungal strains are of interest to physicians, enabling them to adopt appropriate strategies for empiric and prophylactic therapies. We investigated the antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated over a 2-year period from hospitalised patients with invasive yeast infections.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>638 yeasts were isolated from the blood, central venous catheters and sterile fluids of 578 patients on general and surgical intensive care units and surgical wards. Etest strips and Sensititre panels were used to test the susceptibility of the isolates to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole in 13 laboratories centres (LC) and two co-ordinating centres (CC). The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution method was used at the CCs for comparison.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Etest and Sensititre (LC/CC) MIC<sub>90 </sub>values were, respectively: amphotericin B 0.5/0.38, 1/1 mg/L; anidulafungin 2/1.5 and 1/1 mg/L; caspofungin 1/0.75 and 0.5/0.5 mg/L; fluconazole 12/8 and 16/16 mg/L; itraconazole 1/1.5, 0.5/0.5 mg/L; posaconazole 0.5 mg/L and voriconazole 0.25 mg/L for all. The overall MIC<sub>90 </sub>values were influenced by the reduced susceptibility of <it>Candida parapsilosis </it>isolates to echinocandins and a reduced or lack of susceptibility of <it>Candida glabrata </it>and <it>Candida krusei </it>to azoles, in particular fluconazole and itraconazole. Comparison of the LC and CC results showed good Essential Agreement (90.3% for Etest and 92.9% for Sensititre), and even higher Categorical Agreement (93.9% for Etest and 96% for Sensititre); differences were observed according to the species, method, and antifungal drug. No cross-resistance between echinocandins and triazoles was detected.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our data confirm the different antifungal susceptibility patterns among species, and highlight the need to perform antifungal susceptibility testing of clinically relevant yeasts. With the exception of a few species (e.g. <it>C. glabrata </it>for azoles and <it>C. parapsilosis </it>for echinocandins), the findings of our study suggest that two of the most widely used commercial methods (Etest and Sensititre) provide valid and reproducible results.</p

    Predicting needlestick and sharps injuries in nursing students: Development of the SNNIP scale

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    ¬© 2020 The Authors. Nursing Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Aim: To develop an instrument to investigate knowledge and predictive factors of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) in nursing students during clinical placements. Design: Instrument development and cross-sectional study for psychometric testing. Methods: A self-administered instrument including demographic data, injury epidemiology and predictive factors of NSIs was developed between October 2018‚ÄďJanuary 2019. Content validity was assessed by a panel of experts. The instrument's factor structure and discriminant validity were explored using principal components analysis. The STROBE guidelines were followed. Results: Evidence of content validity was found (S-CVI 0.75; I-CVI 0.50‚Äď1.00). A three-factor structure was shown by exploratory factor analysis. Of the 238 participants, 39% had been injured at least once, of which 67.3% in the second year. Higher perceptions of ‚Äúpersonal exposure‚ÄĚ (4.06, SD 3.78) were reported by third-year students. Higher scores for ‚Äúperceived benefits‚ÄĚ of preventive behaviours (13.6, SD 1.46) were reported by second-year students

    Lipoprotein(a) Genotype Influences the Clinical Diagnosis of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

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    : Background Evidence suggests that LPA risk genotypes are a possible contributor to the clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). This study aimed at determining the prevalence of LPA risk variants in adult individuals with FH enrolled in the Italian LIPIGEN (Lipid Transport Disorders Italian Genetic Network) study, with (FH/M+) or without (FH/M-) a causative genetic variant. Methods and Results An lp(a) [lipoprotein(a)] genetic score was calculated by summing the number risk-increasing alleles inherited at rs3798220 and rs10455872 variants. Overall, in the 4.6% of 1695 patients with clinically diagnosed FH, the phenotype was not explained by a monogenic or polygenic cause but by genotype associated with high lp(a) levels. Among 765 subjects with FH/M- and 930 subjects with FH/M+, 133 (17.4%) and 95 (10.2%) were characterized by 1 copy of either rs10455872 or rs3798220 or 2 copies of either rs10455872 or rs3798220 (lp(a) score ‚Č•1). Subjects with FH/M- also had lower mean levels of pretreatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than individuals with FH/M+ (t test for difference in means between FH/M- and FH/M+ groups &lt;0.0001); however, subjects with FH/M- and lp(a) score ‚Č•1 had higher mean (SD) pretreatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (223.47 [50.40] mg/dL) compared with subjects with FH/M- and lp(a) score=0 (219.38 [54.54] mg/dL for), although not statistically significant. The adjustment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels based on lp(a) concentration reduced from 68% to 42% the proportion of subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level ‚Č•190‚ÄČmg/dL (or from 68% to 50%, considering a more conservative formula). Conclusions Our study supports the importance of measuring lp(a) to perform the diagnosis of FH appropriately and to exclude that the observed phenotype is driven by elevated levels of lp(a) before performing the genetic test for FH

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function √į√į¬•with constraints√į √į √į¬• ¬• √įand√į¬ī√į¬• = √į. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Measurement of the top quark forward-backward production asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric and chromomagnetic moments in pp collisions at ‚ąös = 13 TeV