899 research outputs found

    On Intergenerational Transmission of Reading Habits in Italy: Is a Good Example the Best Sermon?

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    The intergenerational transmission of preference and attitudes has been less investigated in the literature than the intergenerational transmission of education and income. Using the Italian Time Use Survey (2002-2003) conducted by ISTAT, we analyse the intergenerational transmission of reading habits: are children more likely to allocate time to studying and reading when they observe their parents doing the same activity? The intergeneration transmission of attitudes towards studying and reading can be explained by both cultural and educational transmission from parents to children and by imitating behaviours. The latter channel is of particular interest, since it entails a direct influence parents may have on child’s preference formation through their role model, and it opens the scope for active policies aimed at promoting good parents’ behaviours. We follow two fundamental approaches to estimation: a “long run” model, consisting of OLS intergenerational type regressions for the reading habit, and “short run” household fixed effect models, where we aim at identifying the impact of the role model exerted by parents, exploiting different exposure of sibling to parents’ example within the same household. Our long run results show that children are more likely to read and study when they live with parents that are used to read. Mothers seem to be more important than fathers in this type of intergenerational transmission. Moreover, the short run analysis shows that there is an imitation effect: in the day of the survey children are more likely to read after they saw either the mother or the father reading.

    Investigation of peak shapes in the MIBETA experiment calibrations

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    In calorimetric neutrino mass experiments, where the shape of a beta decay spectrum has to be precisely measured, the understanding of the detector response function is a fundamental issue. In the MIBETA neutrino mass experiment, the X-ray lines measured with external sources did not have Gaussian shapes, but exhibited a pronounced shoulder towards lower energies. If this shoulder were a general feature of the detector response function, it would distort the beta decay spectrum and thus mimic a non-zero neutrino mass. An investigation was performed to understand the origin of the shoulder and its potential influence on the beta spectrum. First, the peaks were fitted with an analytic function in order to determine quantitatively the amount of events contributing to the shoulder, also depending on the energy of the calibration X-rays. In a second step, Montecarlo simulations were performed to reproduce the experimental spectrum and to understand the origin of its shape. We conclude that at least part of the observed shoulder can be attributed to a surface effect

    NIKEL: Electronics and data acquisition for kilopixels kinetic inductance camera

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    A prototype of digital frequency multiplexing electronics allowing the real time monitoring of microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKIDs) arrays for mm-wave astronomy has been developed. Thanks to the frequency multiplexing, it can monitor simultaneously 400 pixels over a 500 MHz bandwidth and requires only two coaxial cables for instrumenting such a large array. The chosen solution and the performances achieved are presented in this paper.Comment: 21 pages, 14 figure

    Electronics and data acquisition demonstrator for a kinetic inductance camera

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    A prototype of digital frequency multiplexing electronics allowing the real time monitoring of kinetic inductance detector (KIDs) arrays for mm-wave astronomy has been developed. It requires only 2 coaxial cables for instrumenting a large array. For that, an excitation comb of frequencies is generated and fed through the detector. The direct frequency synthesis and the data acquisition relies heavily on a large FPGA using parallelized and pipelined processing. The prototype can instrument 128 resonators (pixels) over a bandwidth of 125 MHz. This paper describes the technical solution chosen, the algorithm used and the results obtained

    Uniform non-stoichiometric titanium nitride thin films for improved kinetic inductance detector array

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    We describe the fabrication of homogeneous sub-stoichiometric titanium nitride films for microwave kinetic inductance detector (mKID) arrays. Using a 6 inch sputtering target and a homogeneous nitrogen inlet, the variation of the critical temperature over a 2 inch wafer was reduced to <25 %. Measurements of a 132-pixel mKID array from these films reveal a sensitivity of 16 kHz/pW in the 100 GHz band, comparable to the best aluminium mKIDs. We measured a noise equivalent power of NEP = 3.6e-15 W/Hz^(1/2). Finally, we describe possible routes to further improve the performance of these TiN mKID arrays.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Journal of low temperature physics, Proceedings of LTD-1

    Lumped element kinetic inductance detectors maturity for space-borne instruments in the range between 80 and 180 GHz

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    This work intends to give the state-of-the-art of our knowledge of the performance of LEKIDs at millimetre wavelengths (from 80 to 180~GHz). We evaluate their optical sensitivity under typical background conditions and their interaction with ionising particles. Two LEKID arrays, originally designed for ground-based applications and composed of a few hundred pixels each, operate at a central frequency of 100, and 150~GHz (Δν/ν\Delta \nu / \nu about 0.3). Their sensitivities have been characterised in the laboratory using a dedicated closed-circle 100~mK dilution cryostat and a sky simulator, allowing for the reproduction of realistic, space-like observation conditions. The impact of cosmic rays has been evaluated by exposing the LEKID arrays to alpha particles (241^{241}Am) and X sources (109^{109}Cd) with a readout sampling frequency similar to the ones used for Planck HFI (about 200~Hz), and also with a high resolution sampling level (up to 2~MHz) in order to better characterise and interpret the observed glitches. In parallel, we have developed an analytical model to rescale the results to what would be observed by such a LEKID array at the second Lagrangian point.Comment: 7 pages, 2 tables, 13 figure

    Niobium Silicon alloys for Kinetic Inductance Detectors

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    We are studying the properties of Niobium Silicon amorphous alloys as a candidate material for the fabrication of highly sensitive Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID), optimized for very low optical loads. As in the case of other composite materials, the NbSi properties can be changed by varying the relative amounts of its components. Using a NbSi film with T_c around 1 K we have been able to obtain the first NbSi resonators, observe an optical response and acquire a spectrum in the band 50 to 300 GHz. The data taken show that this material has very high kinetic inductance and normal state surface resistivity. These properties are ideal for the development of KID. More measurements are planned to further characterize the NbSi alloy and fully investigate its potential.Comment: Accepted for publication on Journal of Low Temperature Physics. Proceedings of the LTD15 conference (Caltech 2013

    Early GRB Optical and Infrared Afterglow Observations with the 2-m Robotic Liverpool Telescope

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    We present the first optical observations of a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow using the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT), which is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University and situated on La Palma. We briefly discuss the capabilities of LT and its suitability for rapid follow-up observations of early optical and infrared GRB light curves. In particular, the combination of aperture, site, instrumentation and rapid response (robotic over-ride mode aided by telescope's rapid slew and fully-opening enclosure) makes the LT ideal for investigating the nature of short bursts, optically-dark bursts, and GRB blast-wave physics in general. We briefly describe the LT's key position in the RoboNet-1.0 network of robotic telescopes. We present the LT observations of GRB041006 and use its gamma-ray properties to predict the time of the break in optical light curve, a prediction consistent with the observations.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, accepted for publication in Il nuovo cimento (4th Workshop Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Afterglow Era, Rome, 18-22 October 2004

    Rapid GRB Follow-up with the 2-m Robotic Liverpool Telescope

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    We present the capabilities of the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT), owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University and situated at ORM, La Palma. Robotic control and scheduling of the LT make it especially powerful for observations in time domain astrophysics including: (i) rapid response to Targets of Opportunity: Gamma Ray Bursts, novae, supernovae, comets; (ii) monitoring of variable objects on timescales from seconds to years, and (iii) observations simultaneous or coordinated with other facilities, both ground-based and from space. Following a GRB alert from the Gamma Ray Observatories HETE-2, INTEGRAL and Swift we implement a special over-ride mode which enables observations to commence in about a minute after the alert, including optical and near infrared imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the combination of aperture, site, instrumentation and rapid response (aided by its rapid slew and fully-opening enclosure) makes the LT excellently suited to help solving the mystery of the origin of optically dark GRBs, for the investigation of short bursts (which currently do not have any confirmed optical counterparts) and for early optical spectroscopy of the GRB phenomenon in general. We briefly describe the LT's key position in the RoboNet-1.0 network of robotic telescopes.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures, to appear in the proceedings of Interacting Binaries: Accretion, Evolution and Outcomes, 4-10 July 2004, Cefalu, Sicily, Italy, eds. Antonelli et a
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