42 research outputs found

    Passage Re-Ranking in Live QA NLP Pipelines with BERT

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    Passage ranking and document ranking are two common tasks in NLP. Many state of the art pipelines use BM25 to retrieve passages. The top results of this ranking are then re-ranked using a BERT transformer trained on the MS MARCO Passage data set. This system and variations have proved highly effective. In addition, questions and answers using BERT are also well explored topics. However, these systems are fundamentally limited by speed and resource consumption requirements. Given an arbitrary corpus and a collection of pre-trained models, we would like to prove that it is possible to create a live Question Answering machine without fine tuning for a particular topic. In particular, we employ a BERT re-ranker to find the first acceptable fit to pass to our QA transformer. This approach is fundamentally different from past research in that it is focused on first fit and not best fit. The goal of this research is to allow anyone to employ off the shelf components to create an effective, interactive question answering system

    Ionized Gas Towards Molecular Clumps: Physical Properties of Massive Star Forming Regions

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    We have conducted a search for ionized gas at 3.6 cm, using the Very Large Array, toward 31 Galactic intermediate- and high-mass clumps detected in previous millimeter continuum observations. In the 10 observed fields, 35 H II regions are identified, of which 20 are newly discovered. Many of the H II regions are multiply peaked indicating the presence of a cluster of massive stars. We find that the ionized gas tends to be associated toward the millimeter clumps; of the 31 millimeter clumps observed, nine of these appear to be physically related to ionized gas, and a further six have ionized gas emission within 1'. For clumps with associated ionized gas, the combined mass of the ionizing massive stars is compared to the clump masses to provide an estimate of the instantaneous star formation efficiency. These values range from a few percent to 25%, and have an average of 7% ± 8%. We also find a correlation between the clump mass and the mass of the ionizing massive stars within it, which is consistent with a power law. This result is comparable to the prediction of star formation by competitive accretion that a power-law relationship exists between the mass of the most massive star in a cluster and the total mass of the remaining stars

    Increased Mast Cell Density and Airway Responses to Allergic and Non-Allergic Stimuli in a Sheep Model of Chronic Asthma

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    BACKGROUND: Increased mast cell (MC) density and changes in their distribution in airway tissues is thought to contribute significantly to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the time sequence for these changes and how they impact small airway function in asthma is not fully understood. The aim of the current study was to characterise temporal changes in airway MC density and correlate these changes with functional airway responses in sheep chronically challenged with house dust mite (HDM) allergen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MC density was examined on lung tissue from four spatially separate lung segments of allergic sheep which received weekly challenges with HDM allergen for 0, 8, 16 or 24 weeks. Lung tissue was collected from each segment 7 days following the final challenge. The density of tryptase-positive and chymase-positive MCs (MC(T) and MC(TC) respectively) was assessed by morphometric analysis of airway sections immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against MC tryptase and chymase. MC(T) and MC(TC) density was increased in small bronchi following 24 weeks of HDM challenges compared with controls (P<0.05). The MC(TC)/MC(T) ratio was significantly increased in HDM challenged sheep compared to controls (P<0.05). MC(T) and MC(TC) density was inversely correlated with allergen-induced increases in peripheral airway resistance after 24 weeks of allergen exposure (P<0.05). MC(T) density was also negatively correlated with airway responsiveness after 24 challenges (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: MC(T) and MC(TC) density in the small airways correlates with better lung function in this sheep model of chronic asthma. Whether this finding indicates that under some conditions mast cells have protective activities in asthma, or that other explanations are to be considered requires further investigation

    Genetic diversity of porcine group A rotavirus strains in the UK

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    Rotavirus is endemic in pig farms where it causes a loss in production. This study is the first to characterise porcine rotavirus circulating in UK pigs. Samples from diarrheic pigs with rotavirus enteritis obtained between 2010 and 2012 were genotyped in order to determine the diversity of group A rotavirus (GARV) in UK pigs. A wide range of rotavirus genotypes were identified in UK pigs: six G types (VP7); G2, G3, G4, G5, G9 and G11 and six P types (VP4); P[6], P[7], P[8], P[13], P[23], and P[32]. With the exception of a single P[8] isolate, there was less than 95% nucleotide identity between sequences from this study and any available rotavirus sequences. The G9 and P[6] genotypes are capable of infecting both humans and pigs, but showed no species cross-over within the UK as they were shown to be genetically distinct, which suggested zoonotic transmission is rare within the UK. We identified the P[8] genotype in one isolate, this genotype is almost exclusively found in humans. The P[8] was linked to a human Irish rotavirus isolate in the same year. The discovery of human genotype P[8] rotavirus in a UK pig confirms this common human genotype can infect pigs and also highlights the necessity of surveillance of porcine rotavirus genotypes to safeguard human as well as porcine health

    The wide-field, multiplexed, spectroscopic facility WEAVE : survey design, overview, and simulated implementation

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    Funding for the WEAVE facility has been provided by UKRI STFC, the University of Oxford, NOVA, NWO, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), the Isaac Newton Group partners (STFC, NWO, and Spain, led by the IAC), INAF, CNRS-INSU, the Observatoire de Paris, Région Île-de-France, CONCYT through INAOE, Konkoly Observatory (CSFK), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Lund University, the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), the Swedish Research Council, the European Commission, and the University of Pennsylvania.WEAVE, the new wide-field, massively multiplexed spectroscopic survey facility for the William Herschel Telescope, will see first light in late 2022. WEAVE comprises a new 2-degree field-of-view prime-focus corrector system, a nearly 1000-multiplex fibre positioner, 20 individually deployable 'mini' integral field units (IFUs), and a single large IFU. These fibre systems feed a dual-beam spectrograph covering the wavelength range 366-959 nm at R ∼ 5000, or two shorter ranges at R ∼ 20,000. After summarising the design and implementation of WEAVE and its data systems, we present the organisation, science drivers and design of a five- to seven-year programme of eight individual surveys to: (i) study our Galaxy's origins by completing Gaia's phase-space information, providing metallicities to its limiting magnitude for ∼ 3 million stars and detailed abundances for ∼ 1.5 million brighter field and open-cluster stars; (ii) survey ∼ 0.4 million Galactic-plane OBA stars, young stellar objects and nearby gas to understand the evolution of young stars and their environments; (iii) perform an extensive spectral survey of white dwarfs; (iv) survey  ∼ 400 neutral-hydrogen-selected galaxies with the IFUs; (v) study properties and kinematics of stellar populations and ionised gas in z 1 million spectra of LOFAR-selected radio sources; (viii) trace structures using intergalactic/circumgalactic gas at z > 2. Finally, we describe the WEAVE Operational Rehearsals using the WEAVE Simulator.PostprintPeer reviewe

    The wide-field, multiplexed, spectroscopic facility WEAVE: Survey design, overview, and simulated implementation

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    WEAVE, the new wide-field, massively multiplexed spectroscopic survey facility for the William Herschel Telescope, will see first light in late 2022. WEAVE comprises a new 2-degree field-of-view prime-focus corrector system, a nearly 1000-multiplex fibre positioner, 20 individually deployable 'mini' integral field units (IFUs), and a single large IFU. These fibre systems feed a dual-beam spectrograph covering the wavelength range 366−-959\,nm at R∼5000R\sim5000, or two shorter ranges at R∼20 000R\sim20\,000. After summarising the design and implementation of WEAVE and its data systems, we present the organisation, science drivers and design of a five- to seven-year programme of eight individual surveys to: (i) study our Galaxy's origins by completing Gaia's phase-space information, providing metallicities to its limiting magnitude for ∼\sim3 million stars and detailed abundances for ∼1.5\sim1.5 million brighter field and open-cluster stars; (ii) survey ∼0.4\sim0.4 million Galactic-plane OBA stars, young stellar objects and nearby gas to understand the evolution of young stars and their environments; (iii) perform an extensive spectral survey of white dwarfs; (iv) survey ∼400\sim400 neutral-hydrogen-selected galaxies with the IFUs; (v) study properties and kinematics of stellar populations and ionised gas in z<0.5z<0.5 cluster galaxies; (vi) survey stellar populations and kinematics in ∼25 000\sim25\,000 field galaxies at 0.3≲z≲0.70.3\lesssim z \lesssim 0.7; (vii) study the cosmic evolution of accretion and star formation using >1>1 million spectra of LOFAR-selected radio sources; (viii) trace structures using intergalactic/circumgalactic gas at z>2z>2. Finally, we describe the WEAVE Operational Rehearsals using the WEAVE Simulator.Comment: 41 pages, 27 figures, accepted for publication by MNRA

    The wide-field, multiplexed, spectroscopic facility WEAVE: Survey design, overview, and simulated implementation

    Get PDF
    WEAVE, the new wide-field, massively multiplexed spectroscopic survey facility for the William Herschel Telescope, will see first light in late 2022. WEAVE comprises a new 2-degree field-of-view prime-focus corrector system, a nearly 1000-multiplex fibre positioner, 20 individually deployable 'mini' integral field units (IFUs), and a single large IFU. These fibre systems feed a dual-beam spectrograph covering the wavelength range 366−959\,nm at R∼5000, or two shorter ranges at R∼20000. After summarising the design and implementation of WEAVE and its data systems, we present the organisation, science drivers and design of a five- to seven-year programme of eight individual surveys to: (i) study our Galaxy's origins by completing Gaia's phase-space information, providing metallicities to its limiting magnitude for ∼3 million stars and detailed abundances for ∼1.5 million brighter field and open-cluster stars; (ii) survey ∼0.4 million Galactic-plane OBA stars, young stellar objects and nearby gas to understand the evolution of young stars and their environments; (iii) perform an extensive spectral survey of white dwarfs; (iv) survey ∼400 neutral-hydrogen-selected galaxies with the IFUs; (v) study properties and kinematics of stellar populations and ionised gas in z1 million spectra of LOFAR-selected radio sources; (viii) trace structures using intergalactic/circumgalactic gas at z>2. Finally, we describe the WEAVE Operational Rehearsals using the WEAVE Simulator

    Microbiome Yarns: bacterial predators, tissue tropism and molecular decoys.

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    This Crystal Ball speculates on the potential of molecular decoys for prevention and therapy in infectious diseases. It is dedicated to the memory of Singh Chhatwal, who pioneered research on disguises and decoys produced by Streptococcus, and so much more
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