529 research outputs found

    Handling Concept Drifts in Regression Problems -- the Error Intersection Approach

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    Machine learning models are omnipresent for predictions on big data. One challenge of deployed models is the change of the data over time, a phenomenon called concept drift. If not handled correctly, a concept drift can lead to significant mispredictions. We explore a novel approach for concept drift handling, which depicts a strategy to switch between the application of simple and complex machine learning models for regression tasks. We assume that the approach plays out the individual strengths of each model, switching to the simpler model if a drift occurs and switching back to the complex model for typical situations. We instantiate the approach on a real-world data set of taxi demand in New York City, which is prone to multiple drifts, e.g. the weather phenomena of blizzards, resulting in a sudden decrease of taxi demand. We are able to show that our suggested approach outperforms all regarded baselines significantly

    OCT angiography in optic disc drusen: comparison with structural and functional parameters

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    Background: Optic disc drusen (ODD) can cause retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defects with progressive visual field (VF) loss. Microvascular changes are discussed as a cause. We measured the vessel density (VD) of the optic disc in ODD using optical coherence tomography angiography and compared it with a normal population. Another intent was to determine the sensitivity and correlations in comparison with functional (VF) and structural parameters (RNFL, minimum rim width (MRW), ganglion cell complex (GCC)). Methods: We analysed the VD of 25 patients with ODD and an age-matched control population including 25 healthy participants using AngioVue (Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA). We obtained data about RNFL, GCC, Bruch's membrane opening MRW (Spectralis HRA & OCT;Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) and VF (standard automated perimetry;SITA 24-2). Low image quality and pathologies interfering with the diagnostics were excluded. Parametric data were analysed using the t-test and non-parametric values using the Mann-Whitney U test. Linear regression analysis was used to determine correlations using the Bravais-Pearson test. Results: The VD was significantly reduced in the ODD group especially the peripapillary capillary VD (n=45 vs 50 eyes;mean 43.15% vs 51.70%). Peripapillary RNFL thickness correlated with the VD significantly (r=0.902 (n=44), 0.901 (n=44), 0.866 (n=45)). The RNFL analysis showed a reduction in ODD, especially the superior hemisphere (mean 107 mu m, 129 mu m;49 vs 50 eyes). The GCC was significantly lower in the ODD group (n=38 vs 40;mean 87 mu m vs 98 mu m). Positive correlation between the VD and the GCC was significant (n=37, r=0.532). There is a significant negative correlation (n=19;r=-0.726) between the VD and the pattern standard deviation (PSD). Conclusion This study reveals significant peripapillary microvascular changes in patients with ODD correlating with the RNFL and GCC reduction. There is a negative correlation between the PSD and the VD

    The Shapley super-cluster. New X-ray detections and mass distribution

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    The largest and the deepest super-structure known today is the Shapley super-cluster. This is the sky area with the highest over-density of galaxy clusters and therefore also an ideal region to test the effects of a high density environment on galaxies and on clusters. We performed an X-ray survey of a wide region surrounding the Shapley super-structure. Additionally to previously known super-cluster X-ray members, we identified diffuse X-ray emission from 35 cluster candidates without previous X-ray detection. 21 of them were previously known, optically selected super-cluster members, while the other candidates had not been previously detected in any wavelength range. Optical follow-up observations revealed that at least four of these new candidates also have optical cluster counterparts. The super-cluster shows a slightly flattened and elongated morphology. Clusters outside the central dense core are preferentially located in four perpendicular filaments in a similar way to what is seen in simulations of Large Scale Structure. We measure the cluster number density in the region to be more than one order of magnitude higher than the mean density of rich Abell clusters previously observed at similar Galactic latitudes; this over-density, in the super-cluster outskirts, is mainly due to an excess of low X-ray luminous clusters (with respect to an average population), which leads us to think that the whole region is still accreting low luminosity, small objects from the outskirts. Pushing our total X-ray mass estimate to fainter clusters would drastically increase the total super-cluster mass measure, because of the presence of the rich X-ray low luminosity population.Comment: 27 pages; accepted for publication in A&A. A version of the paper with higher resolution images can be downloaded at: http://people.na.infn.it/~betty/publications_files/Shapley.ps.g

    Examining the generalizability of research findings from archival data

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    This initiative examined systematically the extent to which a large set of archival research findings generalizes across contexts. We repeated the key analyses for 29 original strategic management effects in the same context (direct reproduction) as well as in 52 novel time periods and geographies; 45% of the reproductions returned results matching the original reports together with 55% of tests in different spans of years and 40% of tests in novel geographies. Some original findings were associated with multiple new tests. Reproducibility was the best predictor of generalizability—for the findings that proved directly reproducible, 84% emerged in other available time periods and 57% emerged in other geographies. Overall, only limited empirical evidence emerged for context sensitivity. In a forecasting survey, independent scientists were able to anticipate which effects would find support in tests in new samples

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript −1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation