12,152 research outputs found

    Chevron's seismic survey, USAID's Nishorgo project, the Lawachara National Park of Bangladesh: a critical review

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    The paper mainly reviews the USAID-funded Nishorgo project which is an environmental project undertaken for the conservation of the officially declared protected areas of Bangladesh. This project is based on a co-management approach having the major features of Public-Private Partnership arrangements. Both state and non-state actors including the local communities are the participants in the project. However, the operation of this project coincides with the business interests of the US-based multinational company- Chevron in the project sites. In fact, it conducted a seismic survey in the Lawachhara forest areas of north-eastern Bangladesh. But the survey raised a public controversy as it violated the municipal laws of the country on wildlife conservation. This paper takes a Gramscian perspective to review the two different but related MNC and donor projects. In this regard, the first project of seismic survey provides a case study for the analysis of Chevron’s operation in Bangladesh, while the second project reviews USAID sponsored Nishorgo. Based on field works, interviews, and content analysis of local newspapers, this paper finds that both projects appear to have some other purposes which are largely related to the economic interests of the USA. In both cases, members of the local public and private agencies appear to partner with their international cohorts, and neglect the genuine responsibility of conserving the forests, thus further complicating the principles of public-private partnership empirically

    Dyeing studies with henna and madder: A research on effect of tin (II) chloride mordant

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    The present paper deals with the application of natural dyes extracted from powdered henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves and madder (Rubia cordifolia) roots on woolen yarn and assessment of effect of stannous chloride mordant on dyeability, color characteristics, fastness properties and antifungal activity of dyed woolen yarn. Sixteen shades have been developed for the characterization of their color characteristics and fastness properties. The color strength (K/S value) has been found to be very good in all dyed woolen yarn samples. The color fastness with respect to light exposure, washing and rubbing was quite satisfactory for both henna as well as madder dyed samples. Henna leaves extract was found very effective against Candida glabrata both in solution as well as after application on wool substrate but no antifungal activity is reported in case of madder both in solution as well as on wool substrate


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    In Bangladesh, climatic change is likely to impact significantly upon surface and groundwater availability, as well as in other countries. The population of Bangladesh is projected to be double the current 2010 level by 2050. Demand for water will rise with the increasing demand for rice. This paper considers the optimal demand management of irrigation water with stochastic supply under climate change for a 3-year planning horizon. It also identifies the utilization of irrigation water from surface water sources to maximize the expected net social return from rice production. This is done by considering decision on dam release for rice production with reference to climate change. A stochastic dynamic programming model is developed for analyzing the levels and timing of the allocation of surface water for irrigation. The objective is to find the optimal dam release for irrigation which results in the maximum expected present value of the stream of annual net social return from rice production for the 3 years from 2012 to 2014. Net social return in a year consists of the value of rice consumed, measured by consumers’ willingness to pay for rice, less the total cost of rice production. The paper also identifies the need for irrigation infrastructure and determines the optimal investment policies for the adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh agriculture.climate change, dam release, dynamic programming, Environmental Economics and Policy,

    Comparison of Hematological and Inflammatory Markers to Predict Outcome in Covid-19 in 1st and 4th Wave

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    OBJECTIVES: To compare the values of the hematological and inflammatory markers in 1st and 4th waves to predict the outcome of COVID-19 in a hospital-based study. METHODOLOGY: This comparative study was conducted in the Department of Hematology, Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, from April 2020 to 20 August 2021. Tests of significance (Independent t-test/Mann Whitney U test) and Chi-square test were used. Relevant information was recorded on a pre-designed proforma prepared following the study's objectives. RESULTS: A total of 178 patients, 71 from (the 1st wave) and 107 from (the 4th wave) with known outcomes, were studied. A statistically significant difference exists between the groups (1st vs 4th wave) regarding hematological markers; neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (p=0.02), Absolute Neutrophilic count (ANC) (p=0.01) and platelet count (p=0.001). Similarly, significantly higher inflammatory markers values were recorded in the 1st  wave compared with the 4th wave regarding inflammatory markers; CRP (p=0.002) and D-dimer (p=0.001). During the 1st wave, Total Leukocyte Count (TLC), ANC and d-dimer were the leading prognostic indicators to predict mortality/worst outcome in COVID-19 with an Area Under Curve (AUC) of 0.74, 0.70 and 0.7  on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) respectively. In 4th, the Area under the curve (AUC) of d-dimer was 0.84 to predict mortality.  CONCLUSION: TLC, ANC, NLR, and low platelet count were the worst hematological markers in COVID-19 in the first wave, while d-dimer and CRP were the primary prognostic inflammatory markers. Unlikely in the 4th wave, the prognostic values of hematological markers were merely significant. The d-dimer values in both the waves proved to be reliable for predicting the severity and mortality of COVID-19

    Health Care Workers of Rawalpindi Medical University: The Vanguards at the COVID-19 War

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    COVID-19 has been ravaging the world since November 2019, when the first case was detected. The population affected by this affliction is well North of 21 million cases worldwide. The hardest-hit countries include the USA (5.5 Million), Brazil (3.3 Million), and India (2.6 Million), accounting for nearly 55% of all cases. No part of the world has been left untouched by the plague and at this point, daily cases seem to be only increasing, with more than 250,000 cases, being reported worldwide daily. Close to 775,000 individuals have fallen prey to this disease, with the daily death tally averaging north of 5000 cases.1 14.5 million people have recovered to date, demonstrating a closed case mortality rate of 5

    Duty-free market access in the Republic of Korea: Potential for least developed countries and Bangladesh

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    The paper attempts to assess the benefits of Duty-Free and Quota-Free Market (DFQF) access initiatives of the Republic of Korea for least developed countries (LDCs), which have been in place since 1 January 2008. Following a brief introduction on the background of this initiative, this paper examines the exports profile of LDCs, reviews the DFQF scheme of the Republic of Korea, and assesses the potential benefits of the DFQF scheme for LDCs as well as Bangladesh. The export profile of LDCs shows that the share of those countries in world exports in recent years has increased; this can be attributed to price increases for petroleum constituting a major share of LDC total exports. The Republic of Korea is the tenth largest destination of LDC exports, which indicates that the DFQF initiatives of the Republic of Korea for LDCs will have a positive impact on LDC exports. The DFQF scheme of the Republic of Korea covers 6,967 tariff lines, representing about 59 per cent of the all tariff lines of its Customs Schedule. There are at least 25 chapters where product coverage within the chapter is very low, notably below 10 per cent. These include garments, made-up textiles, and major agricultural products including fisheries. Among the DFQF lines, 1,464 lines are duty-free on a most-favoured nation (MFN) basis. Hence, LDCs enjoy tariff preferences on 5,503 tariff lines, while the average margin of preference on these lines is 7.89 per cent. The margin of preferences in most cases is either 6 per cent or 8 per cent. In order to enjoy the preference granted under the scheme, the products should be wholly obtained, or should have at least 50 per cent value addition. Analysis also reveals that the DFQF scheme covers 36.1 per cent of LDCs’ export to the Republic of Korea in 2007, keeping 64.9 per cent of current LDC exports to that country outside the purview of preferential treatment. Only three major export items from LDCs – copper cathodes, raw tobacco and plywood – enjoy -free access. Bangladesh, Congo, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malawi, Myanmar, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia are likely to benefit from duty-free access for these items. The Republic of Korea is the seventh-largest destination for Bangladesh exports. Bangladesh enjoys preferential access to the Republic of Korea under the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA). DFQF access for LDCs adds 5,471 tariff lines for Bangladesh under preferential access. However, analysis shows that the additional lines cover only 4.63 per cent of Bangladesh’s exports to the Republic of Korea in 2007. However, there are important apparel articles in the scheme that may yield benefits for Bangladesh. APTA continues to remain attractive to Bangladesh because of higher trade coverage and more relaxed rules of origin. Nevertheless, the DFQF scheme currently offered by the Republic of Korea is a milestone for the developing countries’ initiative for LDCs, and one that is likely to lead to other countries coming up with similar initiatives. In time, the Republic of Korea is likely to incrementally increase the product coverage, which will lead to higher trade coverage and more favourable rules of origin, and will yield significant benefits for LDCs.least developed countries, Bangladesh, Korea, market access,
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