22 research outputs found

    Economic Analysis of Acreage Supply Response under Risk: the Case of Selected Crops in Oklahoma

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    Agricultural Economic

    Technical Efficiency in Rice Production Among Smallholder Farmers in Central Liberia: A Stochastic Production Frontier Analysis

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    Demand for rice remains high in Liberia with low farm-level productivity (1.2 t/ha). The ability of smallholder rice farmers to improve output levels and attain sustainable production depends on efficient farm practices, hence technical efficiency. A stochastic frontier production function was applied to examine the technical efficiency of rice production. A two stage random sampling with stratification was used to collect data from 400 rice farmers in Bein Garr and Panta Districts, Central Liberia. The study has revealed that technical efficiency among farmers range from 14% to 88%, with the mean of 55%; indicating that on average, the actual output can be increased by 45% in the study area with the available technology and resources.  The determinants explaining efficiency variation in the study area were education, farming experience, household size, credit access, group membership and the type of seed used. The study recommends policies that target on increasing and improving farmers’ access to credit so as to enable the farmers get the needed production inputs such as improved seeds and fertilizer on time. Furthermore, farmers should be encouraged to organize themselves into associations/cooperatives around major rice producing and processing hubs. Keywords: smallholder farmers, rice, technical efficiency, stochastic frontier, Liberi

    Yield and Commercialisation Effects of SRI Interventions in Mngeta, Kilombero District, Tanzania

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    This paper discusses System of Rice Intensification (SRI) interventions and its potential effects on paddy yield and commercialisation in Mngeta division, Kilombero district in Morogoro region, Tanzania. SRI is an innovative agroecological methodology that aims to improve yields and farmers’ profits by creating the most suitable environment for the rice plant to grow. It comprises the precise set of cultivation practices specifically required for careful management of biophysical needs of the rice plant for producing high yields. To assess the effects, we compare between trained and non-trained farmers, as well as between farmers who are members of SRI associations and non-SRI members, on aspects of adoption of SRI interventions, paddy productivity and yields. In turn, the effects of SRI is evaluated in terms of its influence on rice yield per hectare and commercialisation at household level

    Is Agricultural Commercialisation Sufficient for Poverty Reduction? Lessons from Rice Commercialisation in Kilombero, Tanzania

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    Agricultural commercialisation is widely promoted as a solution for poverty alleviation among smallholder farmers because it has been associated with rising cash income, improved nutrition and living standards. In Tanzania, agricultural commercialization is an important component for agricultural transformation to meet national goals and achieve global sustainable development goals. This paper uses data from Mngeta division in Kilombero district, a major rice-producing area in Tanzania, to demonstrate that attaining higher commercialisation may not be enough to ensure poverty reduction among small-scale farmers and medium-scale farmers. The findings show that rice commercialisation in the study area was driven by intensification and extensification through sustainable rice intensification technologies and animal-drawn technologies, respectively. Nonetheless, the majority of medium-scale farmers who employed animal drawn technology for area expansion and scored the highest rice commercialisation index, surprisingly, scored the highest multidimensional poverty index, representing a higher poverty level than small-scale farmers. This demonstrates that while increased cash income through commercialisation is necessary, it is not sufficient to ensure poverty reduction. Hence more needs to be done to address institutional and cultural factors that impede initiatives to translate higher income to livelihood improvement and facilitate inclusive poverty reduction

    Rice Commercialization in Mngeta Kilombero District, Tanzania: Policy Implications for Inclusive Poverty Reduction

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    Agricultural commercialization is sought for its effect on productivity, income and livelihood improvement. Rising agricultural commercialization also contributes to employment, foreign currency and government revenue through taxes. It may however have various undesirable outcomes. Rising commercialization from area expansion may increase the smallholders’ vulnerability if they sell part or all of their land. Meanwhile, intensification can have negative effects from increasing use and poor handling of agrochemicals.  This paper used pooled cross section data on rice commercialization from Mngeta division in Kilombero valley, Tanzania; collected in two waves (2017 and 2019), to assess commercialization levels among different farmer categories and its impact of on livelihoods and social inclusion.  The paper addresses three basic questions; Are commercialization levels dynamic over time? Do commercialization levels differ across farmer categories? Is rice commercialization poverty reducing at all levels? The analysis compares across farmer categories, the effect of commercialization influencing factors and the subsequent effect of rice commercialization on livelihood outcomes. The findings show that commercialization is happening through intensification and extensification but it is not yet on a steady increasing trend and both options have sustainability implication. Meanwhile, poverty reduction is observed across all farmer categories due to rice commercialization and diversified livelihood options, however it is only significant above the fourth quintile (>60% with a social difference). Gender, age and cultural norms are identified as exclusion barrier that need to be addressed in order to enhance inclusion of those benefiting less from agricultural commercialization processes. These finding inform village, district and national level decision makers as they strive to overcome inclusion barriers Keywords: Commercialization, inclusion, diversification, rice, poverty reduction, Kilombero, Tanzania DOI: 10.7176/DCS/12-7-04 Publication date:September 30th 202

    Livestock, Crop Commercialisation and Poverty Reduction Among Rural Households in the Singida Region, Tanzania

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    Livestock is an important component of mixed crop-livestock farming systems in the Singida Region in Tanzania, directly or indirectly contributing to household income, food security and poverty reduction among rural people in the region. This paper examined the effect of livestock on crop commercialisation and farmers’ livelihoods in the region. The complementarity between crops and livestock in the farming systems of Singida needs to be recognised, enhanced and utilised not only by farmers and livestock keepers, but also by local government authorities and development practitioners

    A Realidade a Cerca da Subida de Preços: A Dinâmica dos Preços de Alimentos em Moçambique e as Implicações Políticas.

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    Resultados das Investigações do SIMA- Departamento de Estatística e Departamento de Análise de Políticas MINAG - Direcção de Economia – Dpto. Estatísticafood security, food policy Mozambique, Demand and Price Analysis, Q18,

    Rice Commercialisation Effects in Mngeta, Kilombero District, Tanzania: Identifying the Underlying Factors

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    Rice production is the most dominant farming system in Kilombero valley in Morogoro region, Tanzania, accounting for more than 80 per cent of cultivated land within the valley. This paper examines changes in rice commercialisation and livelihood outcomes for different categories of farmers in the Mngeta division, Kilombero District, Tanzania. Understanding the underlying factors of agricultural commercialisation enables policymakers to ensure that policy interventions promote inclusive and equitable involvement of all farmers and other value chain actors, especially women and youths, who have been excluded from most development initiatives in the past

    Is Rice and Sunflower Commercialisation in Tanzania Inclusive for Women and Youth?

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    Rice is Tanzania’s third most important staple crop after maize and cassava, and produced by more than 1 million households who are mostly small-scale farmers. Meanwhile sunflower is the most important edible oil crop in Tanzania, also grown mostly by small-scale farmers. Over the last two decades, rice and sunflower have increasingly become important sources of income. This can be attributed to efforts by the government, in collaboration with development agencies, to commercialise rice and sunflower production to improve livelihoods and reduce poverty among actors in both value chains. There have also been efforts aimed at ensuring sustainable commercialisation and involvement of women and youth in the commercialisation process. Despite these initiatives, women and youth involvement in the rice and sunflower commercialisation process is likely to be constrained by their limited access to land and financial capital. Looking at government policy to promote commercial rice and sunflower production for poverty reduction, this brief examines the extent to which households headed by women and youth have been able to participate in the commercialisation process of the two value chains

    Food consumption patterns, seasonality and market access in Mozambique

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    Seasonal fluctuations in food consumption are a serious problem in rural Mozambique, where community isolation is high, and market integration, use of improved inputs, and access to off-farm income are low. This article uses household survey data to trace seasonal fluctuations in food consumption patterns and to analyse the ways households maintain access to calories. Significant substitution is observed between maize and cassava, and beans and green vegetables, over the production cycle. An analysis of the total expenditure elasticity of food groups reveals how precarious food security is in rural households in the poorest quintile. These households show near unitary expenditure elasticity for even the most basic staples of maize and cassava. The potential role of public policy in diminishing seasonal fluctuation in food consumption is explored using distance to road as an indicator of market access. The results show that distance to the nearest road has a significant effect on household food consumption patterns.
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