7 research outputs found

    Effects of maslimic acid and related triterpene derivatives on kidney function of male Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Ph. D. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 2014.Reports indicate that hyperglycaemia leads to development of kidney complications which result in sodium retention, decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and high blood pressure. Various biochemical processes such as polyol pathway, AGEs formation are thought to gives rise to a development and progression of these complications. Clinical trials show that there is currently no commercially available compound that lowers blood glucose concentration while alleviating diabetic nephropathy (DN). Current methods involve the use of ACE blockers which are associated with side effects. Previous reports in our laboratories indicate that triterpene constituents of Syzygium spp. such as oleanolic acid (OA) possess hypoglycaemic and renoprotetive effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The important question is whether MA, a related triterpene also possesses the same properties. MA is a hydrophobic triterpene and we therefore synthesised derivatives to improve solubility, bioavailability and efficacy. Accordingly this study was designed to investigate the effects of MA and related triterpene derivatives on renal function of STZ-induced diabetic rats

    Malarial Pathophysiology and Phytochemical Interventions: A Current Discourse on Oxidative Stress Anti-Disease Phytotherapeutics

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    Malarial systemic pathophysiology refers to physiological changes or abnormalities that are experienced by individuals infected with the Plasmodium parasite not be presenting in the absence of active, chronic or previous infection. The pathologies are derived, in part, from OS induced insults whose mediators are readily available in malaria. The malaria disease is equivalent to the pathophysiology as shown by the abnormal syndromic expressions ranging from ailments that affect homeostatic mechanisms and processes to tissues and organ specific damages and derangements. Phytotherapeutic remedies refer to the natural phytochemicals or plant medicinal compounds and their derivatives with known antiparasitic and antimalarial disease effects in both experimental and clinical situations. The chapter explores how Plasmodium infection generates or cause to be generated oxidative stress, how oxidative stress drives systemic disease process and how phytotherapeutics treatment (artemisinins) and administration (asiatic acid) in malaria resolves the various pathologies as a current situational analysis


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    Background: Glucose homeostasis derangement is a common pathophysiology of malaria whose aetiology is still controversial. The Plasmodium parasite, immunological and inflammatory responses, as well as chemotherapeutics currently used cause hypoglycaemia in malaria. Anti-parasitic and anti-disease drugs are required to combat malaria while ameliorating the pathophysiology of the infection. Asiatic acid has anti-hyperglycaemic, antioxidant, pro-oxidant properties useful in glucose homeostasis but its influence in malaria is yet to be reported. Here we present findings on the influence of asiatic acid on glucose metabolism in vivo using P. berghei-infected Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Acute as well as sub-chronic studies were carried out in vivo where physicochemical properties and glucose homeostasis were monitored after administration of asiatic acid (10mg/kg) in both non-infected and infected animals. Glucose metabolism associated biochemical changes in malaria were also investigated. Results: In acute studies, asiatic acid improved oral glucose response while in the sub-chronic state it maintained food and water intake and suppressed parasitaemia. Normoglycaemic control was maintained in infected animals through insulin suppression and increasing glucagon secretion, in both acute and chronic studies. Asiatic acid administration curtailed lactate concentration towards normal. Conclusion: Per oral post-infection asiatic acid administration preserved drinking and eating habits, inhibited sickness behaviour while suppressing parasitaemia. Reciprocal relationship between insulin and glucagon concentrations was maintained influencing glucose homeostasis positively and inhibition of hyperlactaemia in malaria

    Malarial Inflammation-Driven Pathophysiology and Its Attenuation by Triterpene Phytotherapeutics

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    Malaria driven pathophysiology inimically conjoined to systemic inflammation response cascade in a vicious feed-forward cycle destined to a terrible debilitation or demise of the host. The Plasmodium parasite initiates physiological changes when it is transmitted into the human host by intermediate host and vector. Sporozoites injection elicits immunological and inflammatory response suppression facilitating movement into the blood stream undetected, destined to hepatocyte. Subsequently, hepatocyte invasion culminates in intracellular growth and conversion of the parasites rapturing hepatocytes releasing merozoites into the extrahepatic circulation. Inflammatory and immunological response initiation results in overt malarial disease symptoms. Initially, inflammatory response alleviates and curtails infection. Activation of leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, and phagocytes secretes inflammatory mediators, chemokines, cytokines cytoadhering molecules which accelerate infection patency. Hormonal processes influence disease tolerance without necessarily interfering with parasitemia. Current treatment is anti-parasitic. Phytotherapeutic intervention in malaria is anti-parasitic and anti-disease effects that terminate the vicious cycle and alleviating disease. The phytochemicals, in malarial experimental and clinical work, include asiatic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid, and inflammatory and immunological aberrations evolving in malaria and the effects of phytochemical therapeutics in the alleviation of the disease to enable leverage of future treatment regimens through harnessing existing plants materials is explored

    Anti-Diabetic Potential of Plant-Based Pentacyclic Triterpene Derivatives: Progress Made to Improve Efficacy and Bioavailability

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    Diabetes mellitus (DM) results from the inability of the pancreas to produce sufficient insulin or weakened cellular response to the insulin produced, which leads to hyperglycemia. Current treatments of DM focus on the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as acarbose, alpha-glucose inhibitors, sulphonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and biguanides to control blood glucose levels. However, these medications are known to have various side effects in addition to their bioavailability, efficacy, and safety concerns. These drawbacks have increased interest in the anti-diabetic potential of plant-derived bioactive compounds such as oleanolic and maslinic acids. Although their efficacy in ameliorating blood glucose levels has been reported in several studies, their bioavailability and efficacy remain of concern. The current review examines the anti-diabetic effects of oleanolic, maslinic, asiatic, ursolic, and corosolic acids and their derivatives, as well as the progress made thus far to enhance their bioavailability and efficacy. The literature for the current review was gathered from leading academic databases—including Google Scholar and PubMed—the key words listed below were used. The literature was searched as widely and comprehensively as possible without a defined range of dates