1,809 research outputs found

    JNK signaling: Regulation and functions based on complex protein-protein partnerships

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    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), as members of the mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) family, mediate eukaryotic cell responses to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress insults. JNKs also regulate important physiological processes, including neuronal functions, immunological actions, and embryonic development, via their impact on gene expression, cytoskeletal protein dynamics, and cell death/survival pathways. Although the JNK pathway has been under study for -20 years, its complexity is still perplexing, with multiple protein partners of JNKs underlying the diversity of actions. Here we review the current knowledge of JNK structure and isoforms as well as the partnerships of JNKs with a range of intracellular proteins. Many of these proteins are direct substrates of the JNKs. We analyzed almost 100 of these target proteins in detail within a framework of their classification based on their regulation by JNKs. Examples of these JNK substrates include a diverse assortment of nuclear transcription factors (Jun, ATF2, Myc, Elk1), cytoplasmic proteins involved in cytoskeleton regulation (DCX, Tau, WDR62) or vesicular transport (JIP1, JIP3), cell membrane receptors (BMPR2), and mitochondrial proteins (Mcl1, Bim). In addition, because upstream signaling components impact JNK activity, we critically assessed the involvement of signaling scaffolds and the roles of feedback mechanisms in the JNK pathway. Despite a clarification of many regulatory events in JNK-dependent signaling during the past decade, many other structural and mechanistic insights are just beginning to be revealed. These advances open new opportunities to understand the role of JNK signaling in diverse physiological and pathophysiological states. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved

    ChPT tests at the NA48 and NA62 experiments at CERN

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    The NA48/2 Collaboration at CERN has accumulated unprecedented statistics of rare kaon decays in the Ke4 modes: Ke4(+-) (K±π+πe±νK^\pm \to \pi^+ \pi^- e^\pm \nu) and Ke4(00) (K±π0π0e±νK^\pm \to \pi^0 \pi^0 e^\pm \nu) with nearly one percent background contamination. The detailed study of form factors and branching rates, based on these data, has been completed recently. The results brings new inputs to low energy strong interactions description and tests of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) and lattice QCD calculations. In particular, new data support the ChPT prediction for a cusp in the π0π0\pi^0\pi^0 invariant mass spectrum at the two charged pions threshold for Ke4(00) decay. New final results from an analysis of about 400 K±π±γγK^\pm \to \pi^\pm \gamma \gamma rare decay candidates collected by the NA48/2 and NA62 experiments at CERN during low intensity runs with minimum bias trigger configurations are presented. The results include a model-independent decay rate measurement and fits to ChPT description.Comment: XIIth International Conference on Heavy Quarks and Leptons 2014, Mainz, German

    Developing additional competition classes for athletes with intellectual impairments: Conceptual approach and efficacy of an ICF derived measure

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    The purpose of para sport classification systems is to minimise the impact of impairment on competition outcome. Currently, athletes with intellectual impairment (II) compete in one class, regardless of the extent of activity limitation resulting from their impairment. Consequently, athletes with II that cause relatively minor difficulty in sport have a competitive advantage over athletes who have intellectual impairments that cause more significant advantage. This research investigated the efficacy of a measure of health-related functional impairment, derived from the World Health Organisation International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF), as a tool to classify athletes with intellectual impairments (II) into groups with impairments that cause similar activity limitation. The first study used a Delphi technique to identify the most relevant codes within the ICF from which a measure of impairment presence and severity was derived. The second study investigated whether the measure could discriminate between groups of II athletes organised into three competition groups, and whether these groups could be predicted by ICF score. The ICF based questionnaire shows promise as a conceptual approach and as a tool in this context, but this is a preliminary step before establishing a sport-specific approach to classification

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum