41 research outputs found

    SKA-VLBI Key Science Programmes

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    A significant fraction of the observing time with the two phase-I SKA telescopes (SKA1-LOW and SKA1-MID) will be spent on Key Science Projects led by member country scientists. The various SKA Science Working Groups, including the VLBI Focus Group are in the process of defining KSPs that are aligned with the High Priority Science Objectives of the SKA. At the moment it is not clear how the special observing mode of SKA-VLBI - when the SKA1 components are phased-up and included in VLBI networks - could be incorporated in KSPs. The VLBI community needs to be prepared by the time the KSP proposal calls are expected (mid-2020s). In this paper we outline the basic concept of SKA-VLBI, and some possibilities for us to engage in SKA KSPs.Comment: Presented at the 14th European VLBI Network Symposium and Users Meeting (EVN 2018), 8-11 October 2018, Granada, Spain. 7 pages 2x2 figures. Will appear in Proceedings of Scienc

    Alto en restricciones, bajo en eficacia

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    El presente trabajo de investigaci√≥n analiza la eficacia de la incorporaci√≥n de las advertencias publicitarias (oct√≥gonos) reguladas en el art√≠culo 10 de la Ley N¬į 30021 en los empaques y publicidad de alimentos procesados para desincentivar su consumo en ni√Īos, ni√Īas y adolescentes, y orientarlos hacia h√°bitos alimenticio m√°s saludables. En ese sentido, el presente trabajo pretende determinar cu√°les son los factores reales que el consumidor toma en cuenta al momento de la decisi√≥n final de compra y luego analizar mediante el uso de herramientas de impacto regulatorio el art√≠culo 10¬į de la Ley N¬į 30021, con el fin de demostrar que el uso de oct√≥gonos no resulta ser la v√≠a adecuada para disminuir el consumo de alimentos altos en grasa, sodio, az√ļcar; as√≠ como, desincentivar el consumo de grasas trans. Asimismo, propondremos medidas m√°s eficientes tales como la educaci√≥n, la promoci√≥n del deporte y los manuales de buenas pr√°cticas para promover h√°bitos alimenticios saludables en la sociedad con la participaci√≥n de todos los actores involucrados. Para los fines del caso, el presente trabajo de investigaci√≥n, se desarrollar√° utilizando un m√©todo descriptivo, cuantitativo y an√°lisis de estudios previamente efectuados sobre la materia. As√≠, ser√° descriptivo al definir conceptos, jurisprudencia y normas aplicables; ser√° cuantitativo al presentar data que valide nuestra hip√≥tesis; y finalmente, se utilizar√°n los estudios efectuados en la problem√°tica, a fin de contrastar sus resultados con nuestra postura.This research study analyzes the effectiveness of the incorporation of advertising warnings (octagons) regulated under article 10 of Law N¬į 30021 regarding the packaging and advertising of processed foods, in order to discourage their consumption by children and adolescents, and guide them towards healthier eating habits, In this sense, the present investigatory work aims to determine what are the real factors that a consumer takes into account at the time of a final purchase decision and then to analyze, through the use of regulatory impact tools, Article 10 of the Law N¬į 30021. The former, in order to demonstrate that the use of octagons is not the appropriate way to reduce the consumption of foods which are high in fat, sodium, and sugar; as well as to discourage the consumption of trans fats. Likewise, more efficient measures to promote healthier eating habits will be proposed, such as education, sports promotion and good practice manuals. This research work will be developed using a descriptive and quantitative method and analysis of studies previously carried out in the subject. Thus, it will be descriptive when defining concepts, jurisprudence and applicable standards; it will be quantitative when presenting data that validates our hypothesis; and finally, the studies carried out will be used in order to contrast their results with our position

    A Novel Generation of Tailored Antimicrobial Drugs Based on Recombinant Multidomain Proteins

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    Antibiotic resistance has exponentially increased during the last years. It is necessary to develop new antimicrobial drugs to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by multidrug- or extensively-drug resistant (MDR/XDR)-bacteria. Host Defense Peptides (HDPs) have a versatile role, acting as antimicrobial peptides and regulators of several innate immunity functions. The results shown by previous studies using synthetic HDPs are only the tip of the iceberg, since the synergistic potential of HDPs and their production as recombinant proteins are fields practically unexplored. The present study aims to move a step forward through the development of a new generation of tailored antimicrobials, using a rational design of recombinant multidomain proteins based on HDPs. This strategy is based on a two-phase process, starting with the construction of the first generation molecules using single HDPs and further selecting those HDPs with higher bactericidal efficiencies to be combined in the second generation of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. As a proof of concept, we have designed three new antimicrobials, named D5L37ő≤D3, D5L37D5L37 and D5LAL37ő≤D3. After an in-depth exploration, we found D5L37D5L37 to be the most promising one, since it was equally effective against four relevant pathogens in healthcare-associated infections, such as methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being MRSA, MRSE and P. aeruginosa MDR strains. The low MIC values and versatile activity against planktonic and biofilm forms reinforce the use of this platform to isolate and produce unlimited HDP combinations as new antimicrobial drugs by effective means.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Long-term Mortality in HIV-Positive Individuals Virally Suppressed for >3 Years With Incomplete CD4 Recovery

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    Virally suppressed HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy who do not achieve a CD4 count >200 cells/¬ĶL have substantially increased long-term mortality. The increased mortality was seen across different patient groups and for all causes of deat

    Results of the COVID-19 mental health international for the general population (COMET-G) study.

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    INTRODUCTION: There are few published empirical data on the effects of COVID-19 on mental health, and until now, there is no large international study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, an online questionnaire gathered data from 55,589 participants from 40 countries (64.85% females aged 35.80¬†¬Ī¬†13.61; 34.05% males aged 34.90¬Ī13.29 and 1.10% other aged 31.64¬Ī13.15). Distress and probable depression were identified with the use of a previously developed cut-off and algorithm respectively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests, multiple forward stepwise linear regression analyses and Factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tested relations among variables. RESULTS: Probable depression was detected in 17.80% and distress in 16.71%. A significant percentage reported a deterioration in mental state, family dynamics and everyday lifestyle. Persons with a history of mental disorders had higher rates of current depression (31.82% vs. 13.07%). At least half of participants were accepting (at least to a moderate degree) a non-bizarre conspiracy. The highest Relative Risk (RR) to develop depression was associated with history of Bipolar disorder and self-harm/attempts (RR¬†=¬†5.88). Suicidality was not increased in persons without a history of any mental disorder. Based on these results a model was developed. CONCLUSIONS: The final model revealed multiple vulnerabilities and an interplay leading from simple anxiety to probable depression and suicidality through distress. This could be of practical utility since many of these factors are modifiable. Future research and interventions should specifically focus on them

    Recent updates on the Maser Monitoring Organisation

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    The Maser Monitoring Organisation (M2O) is a research community of telescope operators, astronomy researchers and maser theoreticians pursuing a joint goal of reaching a deeper understanding of maser emission and exploring its variety of uses as tracers of astrophysical events. These proceedings detail the origin, motivations and current status of the M2O, as was introduced at the 2021 EVN symposium

    A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

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    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions

    A Novel Generation of Tailored Antimicrobial Drugs Based on Recombinant Multidomain Proteins

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    Antibiotic resistance has exponentially increased during the last years. It is necessary to develop new antimicrobial drugs to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by multidrug- or extensively-drug resistant (MDR/XDR)-bacteria. Host Defense Peptides (HDPs) have a versatile role, acting as antimicrobial peptides and regulators of several innate immunity functions. The results shown by previous studies using synthetic HDPs are only the tip of the iceberg, since the synergistic potential of HDPs and their production as recombinant proteins are fields practically unexplored. The present study aims to move a step forward through the development of a new generation of tailored antimicrobials, using a rational design of recombinant multidomain proteins based on HDPs. This strategy is based on a two-phase process, starting with the construction of the first generation molecules using single HDPs and further selecting those HDPs with higher bactericidal efficiencies to be combined in the second generation of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. As a proof of concept, we have designed three new antimicrobials, named D5L37ő≤D3, D5L37D5L37 and D5LAL37ő≤D3. After an in-depth exploration, we found D5L37D5L37 to be the most promising one, since it was equally effective against four relevant pathogens in healthcare-associated infections, such as methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being MRSA, MRSE and P. aeruginosa MDR strains. The low MIC values and versatile activity against planktonic and biofilm forms reinforce the use of this platform to isolate and produce unlimited HDP combinations as new antimicrobial drugs by effective means

    Perturbations of Phosphatidate Cytidylyltransferase (CdsA) Mediate Daptomycin Resistance in Streptococcus mitis/oralis by a Novel Mechanism

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    Streptococcus mitis/oralis is an important pathogen, causing life-threatening infections such as endocarditis and severe sepsis in immunocompromised patients. The ő≤-lactam antibiotics are the usual therapy of choice for this organism, but their effectiveness is threatened by the frequent emergence of resistance. The lipopeptide daptomycin (DAP) has been suggested for therapy against such resistant S. mitis/oralis strains due to its in vitro bactericidal activity and demonstrated efficacy against other Gram-positive pathogens. Unlike other bacteria, however, S. mitis/oralis has the unique ability to rapidly develop stable, high-level resistance to DAP upon exposure to the drug both in vivo and in vitro Using isogenic DAP-susceptible and DAP-resistant S. mitis/oralis strain pairs, we describe a mechanism of resistance to both DAP and cationic antimicrobial peptides that involves loss-of-function mutations in cdsA (encoding a phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase). CdsA catalyzes the synthesis of cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol, an essential phospholipid intermediate for the production of membrane phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. DAP-resistant S. mitis/oralis strains demonstrated a total disappearance of phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin, and anionic phospholipid microdomains from membranes. In addition, these strains exhibited cross-resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides from human neutrophils (i.e., hNP-1). Interestingly, CdsA-mediated changes in phospholipid metabolism were associated with DAP hyperaccumulation in a small subset of the bacterial population, without any binding by the remaining larger population. Our results indicate that CdsA is the major mediator of high-level DAP resistance in S. mitis/oralis and suggest a novel mechanism of bacterial survival against attack by antimicrobial peptides of both innate and exogenous origins
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