1,186 research outputs found

    Host plant scent mediates patterns of attraction/repellence among predatory mites

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    [EN] In mite communities, behavioral and foraging decisions of individuals rely on semiochemicals that they gather from the environment, which contain odors from plants, herbivores, and predators. Because herbivorous mites commonly co-occur with several species of phytoseiid predatory mites, which may engage in intraguild predation (IGP), predator mite decision-making relies on their ability to recognize odors signaling the presence of the herbivore but also that of potential competitors/predators. Here the odor-related foraging decisions of three predatory mites, Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Henriot), Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae), which co-occur in citrus, compete for the herbivore Tetranychus urticae Koch (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae), and can engage in IGP were investigated. The composition of the volatile blends associated with the three predators was characterized. Moreover, the effect of these odors on the predators foraging decisions was measured. Results revealed that (1) the volatile signature of the three predatory mites is species specific, (2) the predators¬Ņ foraging behavior is affected by heterospecific predator odors, and (3) predator responses strongly depend on the host plant: mutual attraction and mutual repellence occurred in Cleopatra mandarin and sour orange, respectively. These findings have important consequences for the management of systems where these species occur. The odor blends that make predators that share pest species as prey avoid each other could be used to improve pest control by minimizing undesired negative interactions among predator species, and by locally increasing predation risk on herbivore pest species.The authors thank M. Piquer (UJI) for technical assistance and J. Calvo (Koppert Biological Systems) for the supply of N. californicus and P. persimilis. This study was partially funded by the Spanish Research State Agency (research grants AGL2014-55616-C3, AGL2015-64990-2R, PID2019-103863RB-I00 and BES-2015-074570).Cruz-Miralles, J.; Cabedo-Lopez, M.; Guzzo, M.; Vacas, S.; Navarro-Llopis, V.; Ib√°√Īez-Gual, MV.; Flors, V.... (2022). Host plant scent mediates patterns of attraction/repellence among predatory mites. Entomologia Generalis. 42(2):217-229. https://doi.org/10.1127/entomologia/2021/1237S21722942

    Imprints of galaxy evolution on H ii regions Memory of the past uncovered by the CALIFA survey

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    H ii regions in galaxies are the sites of star formation and thus particular places to understand the build-up of stellar mass in the universe. The line ratios of this ionized gas are frequently used to characterize the ionization conditions. We use the Hii regions catalogue from the CALIFA survey (~5000 H ii regions), to explore their distribution across the classical [OIII]/Hbeta vs. [NII]/Halpha diagnostic diagram, and how it depends on the oxygen abundance, ionization parameter, electron density, and dust attenuation. We compared the line ratios with predictions from photoionization models. Finally, we explore the dependences on the properties of the host galaxies, the location within those galaxies and the properties of the underlying stellar population. We found that the location within the BPT diagrams is not totally predicted by photoionization models. Indeed, it depends on the properties of the host galaxies, their galactocentric distances and the properties of the underlying stellar population. These results indicate that although H ii regions are short lived events, they are affected by the total underlying stellar population. One may say that H ii regions keep a memory of the stellar evolution and chemical enrichment that have left an imprint on the both the ionizing stellar population and the ionized gasComment: 18 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publishing in A&

    Extreme Starbursts in the Local Universe

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    The "Extreme starbursts in the local universe" workshop was held at the Insituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia in Granada, Spain on 21-25 June 2010. Bearing in mind the advent of a new generation of facilities such as JWST, Herschel, ALMA, eVLA and eMerlin, the aim of the workshop was to bring together observers and theorists to review the latest results. The purpose of the workshop was to address the following issues: what are the main modes of triggering extreme starbursts in the local Universe? How efficiently are stars formed in extreme starbursts? What are the star formation histories of local starburst galaxies? How well do the theoretical simulations model the observations? What can we learn about starbursts in the distant Universe through studies of their local counterparts? How important is the role of extreme starbursts in the hierarchical assembly of galaxies? How are extreme starbursts related to the triggering of AGN in the nuclei of galaxies? Overall, 41 talks and 4 posters with their corresponding 10 minutes short talks were presented during the workshop. In addition, the workshop was designed with emphasis on discussions, and therefore, there were 6 discussion sessions of up to one hour during the workshop. Here is presented a summary of the purposes of the workshop as well as a compilation of the abstracts corresponding to each of the presentations. The summary and conclusions of the workshop along with a description of the future prospects by Sylvain Veilleux can be found in the last section of this document. A photo of the assistants is included.Comment: worksho

    The Mass-Metallicity relation explored with CALIFA: I. Is there a dependence on the star formation rate?

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    We present the results on the study of the global and local M-Z relation based on the first data available from the CALIFA survey (150 galaxies). This survey provides integral field spectroscopy of the complete optical extent of each galaxy (up to 2-3 effective radii), with enough resolution to separate individual HII regions and/or aggregations. Nearly ‚ąľ\sim3000 individual HII regions have been detected. The spectra cover the wavelength range between [OII]3727 and [SII]6731, with a sufficient signal-to-noise to derive the oxygen abundance and star-formation rate associated with each region. In addition, we have computed the integrated and spatially resolved stellar masses (and surface densities), based on SDSS photometric data. We explore the relations between the stellar mass, oxygen abundance and star-formation rate using this dataset. We derive a tight relation between the integrated stellar mass and the gas-phase abundance, with a dispersion smaller than the one already reported in the literature (ŌÉőĒlog(O/H)=\sigma_{\Delta{\rm log(O/H)}}=0.07 dex). Indeed, this dispersion is only slightly larger than the typical error derived for our oxygen abundances. However, we do not find any secondary relation with the star-formation rate, other than the one induced due to the primary relation of this quantity with the stellar mass. We confirm the result using the ‚ąľ\sim3000 individual HII regions, for the corresponding local relations. Our results agree with the scenario in which gas recycling in galaxies, both locally and globally, is much faster than other typical timescales, like that of gas accretion by inflow and/or metal loss due to outflows. In essence, late-type/disk dominated galaxies seem to be in a quasi-steady situation, with a behavior similar to the one expected from an instantaneous recycling/closed-box model.Comment: 19 Pages, 8 figures, Accepted for Publishing in Astronomy and Astrophysics (A&A

    Barcodes of marine invertebrates from north Iberian ports: Native diversity and resistance to biological invasions

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    Ports are gateways for many marine organisms transported by ships worldwide, especially non-indigenous species (NIS). In this study carried out in North Iberian ports (Cantabrian Sea, Bay of Biscay) we have observed 38% of exotic macroinvertebrates. Four species, namely the barnacle Austrominius modestus, the tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the pygmy mussel Xenostrobus securis, exhibited clear signs of invasiveness. A total of 671 barcode (cytochrome oxidase subunit I or 18S rRNA) genes were obtained and confirmed the species status of some cryptic NIS. Negative and significant correlation between diversity estimators of native biota and proportion of NIS suggests biotic resistance in ports. This could be applied to management of port biota for contributing to prevent the settlement of biopollutants in these areas which are very sensitive to biological invasions.Versión del editor2,359

    The problematic use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in adolescents by the cross sectional JOITIC study

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    Background: The emerging field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has brought about new interaction styles. Its excessive use may lead to addictive behaviours. The objective is to determine the prevalence of the problematic use of ICT such as Internet, mobile phones and video games, among adolescents enrolled in mandatory Secondary Education (ESO in Spanish) and to examine associated factors. Methods: Cross sectional, multi-centric descriptive study. Population: 5538 students enrolled in years one to four of ESO at 28 schools in the Vallès Occidental region (Barcelona, Spain). Data collection: self-administered socio-demographic and ICT access questionnaire, and validated questionnaires on experiences related to the use of the Internet, mobile phones and video games (CERI, CERM, CERV). Results: Questionnaires were collected from 5,538 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 20 (77.3 % of the total response), 48.6 % were females. Problematic use of the Internet was observed in 13.6 % of the surveyed individuals; problematic use of mobile phones in 2.4 % and problematic use in video games in 6.2 %. Problematic Internet use was associated with female students, tobacco consumption, a background of binge drinking, the use of cannabis or other drugs, poor academic performance, poor family relationships and an intensive use of the computer. Factors associated with the problematic use of mobile phones were the consumption of other drugs and an intensive use of these devices. Frequent problems with video game use have been associated with male students, the consumption of other drugs, poor academic performance, poor family relationships and an intensive use of these games. Conclusions: This study offers information on the prevalence of addictive behaviours of the Internet, mobile phones and video game use. The problematic use of these ICT devices has been related to the consumption of drugs, poor academic performance and poor family relationships. This intensive use may constitute a risk marker for ICT addictio

    Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

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    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 900 GeV and 7 TeV collected during 2009 and 2010. Then, using the decay of K_s and Lambda particles, the calorimeter response to specific types of particles (positively and negatively charged pions, protons, and anti-protons) is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo predictions. Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets. The response uncertainty is 2-5% for central isolated hadrons and 1-3% for the final calorimeter jet energy scale.Comment: 24 pages plus author list (36 pages total), 23 figures, 1 table, submitted to European Physical Journal

    Standalone vertex Ô¨Ānding in the ATLAS muon spectrometer