635 research outputs found

    Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa)

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    open6siIn the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.openMinervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, SalvatoreMinervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graic, JEAN-MARIE; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvator

    Morbidity and psychological impact of prostate biopsy: the future calls for a change

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    Currently transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) is one of the most common urological procedures, with more than 1 million performed per year in Europe and the United States. [1] Among patients undergoing TRUS-Bx, approximately one-third will receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), while two-thirds receive a negative result on initial biopsy. Negative biopsy patients maintain an estimated risk of repeated biopsy of 12% at 1 year and 38% at 5 years. [2] Standard TRUS-Bx is likely to systematically miss significant tumors, particularly in the anterior and apical parts of the gland. [3] A crucial aim of urologists in the next decade is to increase the accuracy of the procedure and avoid the use of inappropriate biopsies
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