3,495 research outputs found

    Composition of primary cosmic rays near the bend from a study of hadrons in air showers at sea level

    Get PDF
    Data on hadrons in air showers arriving at sea level were studied to find sensitivity to primary cosmic ray composition. The rate of showers which satisfy minimum shower density and hadron energy requirements as well as the rate of showers containing hadrons delayed with respect to the electron shower front are compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The data on the rate of total triggers and delayed hadrons are compared to predicted rates for two models of primary composition. The data are consistent with models which require an increasing heavy nuclei fraction near 10 to the 15th power eV. The spectra which are consistent with the observed rate are also compared to the observed shower size spectrum at sea level and mountain level

    Tests of Statistical Significance and Background Estimation in Gamma Ray Air Shower Experiments

    Full text link
    In this paper we discuss several methods of significance calculation and point out the limits of their applicability. We then introduce a self consistent scheme for source detection and discuss some of its properties. The method allows incorporating background anisotropies by vetoing existing small scale regions on the sky and compensating for known large scale anisotropies. By giving an example using Milagro gamma ray observatory we demonstrate how the method can be employed to relax the detector stability assumption. Two practical implementations of the method are discussed. The method is universal and can be used with any large field-of-view detector, where the object of investigation, steady or transient, point or extended, traverses its field of view.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures. Submitted to ApJ, submission number: 5833

    Measurement of the Branching Fractions for D^0 → π^-e^+v_e and D^0 → + K^-e^+V_e and Determination of │V_(cd)/V_(cs)│^2

    Get PDF
    Measurements of the exclusive branching fractions B(D^0→π^-e^+ν_e) and B(D^0→K^-e^+ν_e), using data collected at the ψ(3770) with the Mark III detector at the SLAC e^+e^- storage ring SPEAR, are used to determine the ratio of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements │V_(cd)/V_(cs)│^2 =0.057_(-0.015)^(+0.038)±0.005

    Search for the decay D^0→K^0e^+e^-

    Get PDF
    A search for the decay of the charmed meson D^0→K^0e^+e^- is presented, based on data collected at the ψ(3770) resonance with the Mark III detector at the SLAC storage ring SPEAR. No evidence for this process is found, resulting in an upper limit on the decay branching ratio of 1.7×10^(-3) at the 90% confidence level

    A Measurement of the Spatial Distribution of Diffuse TeV Gamma Ray Emission from the Galactic Plane with Milagro

    Full text link
    Diffuse γ\gamma-ray emission produced by the interaction of cosmic-ray particles with matter and radiation in the Galaxy can be used to probe the distribution of cosmic rays and their sources in different regions of the Galaxy. With its large field of view and long observation time, the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory is an ideal instrument for surveying large regions of the Northern Hemisphere sky and for detecting diffuse γ\gamma-ray emission at very high energies. Here, the spatial distribution and the flux of the diffuse γ\gamma-ray emission in the TeV energy range with a median energy of 15 TeV for Galactic longitudes between 30^\circ and 110^\circ and between 136^\circ and 216^\circ and for Galactic latitudes between -10^\circ and 10^\circ are determined. The measured fluxes are consistent with predictions of the GALPROP model everywhere except for the Cygnus region (l[65,85]l\in[65^\circ,85^\circ]). For the Cygnus region, the flux is twice the predicted value. This excess can be explained by the presence of active cosmic ray sources accelerating hadrons which interact with the local dense interstellar medium and produce gamma rays through pion decay.Comment: 15 pages, 3 figures, accepted by Ap

    The Intrinsic Origin of Spin Echoes in Dipolar Solids Generated by Strong Pi Pulses

    Full text link
    In spectroscopy, it is conventional to treat pulses much stronger than the linewidth as delta-functions. In NMR, this assumption leads to the prediction that pi pulses do not refocus the dipolar coupling. However, NMR spin echo measurements in dipolar solids defy these conventional expectations when more than one pi pulse is used. Observed effects include a long tail in the CPMG echo train for short delays between pi pulses, an even-odd asymmetry in the echo amplitudes for long delays, an unusual fingerprint pattern for intermediate delays, and a strong sensitivity to pi-pulse phase. Experiments that set limits on possible extrinsic causes for the phenomena are reported. We find that the action of the system's internal Hamiltonian during any real pulse is sufficient to cause the effects. Exact numerical calculations, combined with average Hamiltonian theory, identify novel terms that are sensitive to parameters such as pulse phase, dipolar coupling, and system size. Visualization of the entire density matrix shows a unique flow of quantum coherence from non-observable to observable channels when applying repeated pi pulses.Comment: 24 pages, 27 figures. Revised from helpful referee comments. Added new Table IV, new paragraphs on pages 3 and 1

    Evidence for TeV Emission from GRB 970417a

    Get PDF
    Milagrito, a detector sensitive to very high energy gamma rays, monitored the northern sky from February 1997 through May 1998. With a large field of view and a high duty cycle, this instrument was well suited to perform a search for TeV gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We report on a search made for TeV counterparts to GRBs observed by BATSE. BATSE detected 54 GRBs within the field of view of Milagrito during this period. An excess of events coincident in time and space with one of these bursts, GRB 970417a, was observed by Milagrito. The excess has a chance probability of 2.8×1052.8 \times 10^{-5} of being a fluctuation of the background. The probability for observing an excess at least this large from any of the 54 bursts is 1.5×1031.5 \times 10^{-3}. No significant correlations were detected from the other bursts.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

    Milagro: A TeV observatory for gamma-ray bursts

    Get PDF
    Observation of prompt TeV γ-rays from GRBs requires a new type of detector to overcome the low duty factor and small field of view of current TeV observatories. Milagro is such a new type of very high energy (\u3e a few 100 GeV) gamma-ray observatory, which has a large field of view of \u3e1 steradian and 24 hours/day operation. Milagrito, a prototype for Milagro, was operated from February 1997 to May 1998. During the summer of 1998, Milagrito was dismantled and Milagro was built. Both detectors use a 80 m×60 m×8 m pond of water in which a 3 m×3 m grid of photomultiplier tubes detects the Cherenkov light produced in the water by the relativistic particles in extensive air showers. Milagrito was smaller and had only one layer of photomultipliers, but allowed the technique to be tested. Milagrito observations of the Moon’s shadow and Mrk 501 are consistent with the Monte Carlo prediction of the telescope’s parameters, such as effective area and angular resolution. Milagro will have improved flux sensitivity over Milagrito due to larger effective area, better angular resolution and cosmic-ray background rejection
    corecore