1,389 research outputs found

    Proteomic Profiling of Colon Cancer Tissues: Discovery of New Candidate Biomarkers

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    Colon cancer is an aggressive tumor form with a poor prognosis. This study reports a comparative proteomic analysis performed by using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) between 26 pooled colon cancer surgical tissues and adjacent non-tumoral tissues, to identify potential target proteins correlated with carcinogenesis. The DAVID functional classification tool revealed that most of the differentially regulated proteins, acting both intracellularly and extracellularly, concur across multiple cancer steps. The identified protein classes include proteins involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, metabolic pathways, oxidative stress, cell motility, Ras signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. Interestingly, networks and pathways analysis showed that the identified proteins could be biologically inter-connected to the tumor-host microenvironment, including innate immune response, platelet and neutrophil degranulation, and hemostasis. Finally, transgelin (TAGL), here identified for the first time with four different protein species, collectively down-regulated in colon cancer tissues, emerged as a top-ranked biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC). In conclusion, our findings revealed a different proteomic profiling in colon cancer tissues characterized by the deregulation of specific pathways involved in hallmarks of cancer. All of these proteins may represent promising novel colon cancer biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets, if validated in larger cohorts of patients

    Timing performance of a double layer diamond detector

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    In order to improve the time precision of detectors based on diamonds sensors we have built a detector with two scCVD layers connected in parallel to the same amplifier. This work describes the design and the first measurements of such a prototype performed on a particle beam at CERN. With this different configuration we have obtained an improvement larger than a factor of 1.6-1.7 for the timing precision of the measurement when compared to a one layer scCVD diamond detector.Peer reviewe

    Retrospective Proteomic Screening of 100 Breast Cancer Tissues

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    The present investigation has been conducted on one hundred tissue fragments of breast cancer, collected and immediately cryopreserved following the surgical resection. The specimens were selected from patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, the most frequent and potentially aggressive type of mammary cancer, with the objective to increase the knowledge of breast cancer molecular markers potentially useful for clinical applications. The proteomic screening; by 2D-IPG and mass spectrometry; allowed us to identify two main classes of protein clusters: proteins expressed ubiquitously at high levels in all patients; and proteins expressed sporadically among the same patients. Within the group of ubiquitous proteins, glycolytic enzymes and proteins with anti-apoptotic activity were predominant. Among the sporadic ones, proteins involved in cell motility, molecular chaperones and proteins involved in the detoxification appeared prevalent. The data of the present study indicates that the primary tumor growth is reasonably supported by concurrent events: the inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of cellular proliferation, and the increased expression of glycolytic enzymes with multiple functions. The second phase of the evolution of the tumor can be prematurely scheduled by the occasional presence of proteins involved in cell motility and in the defenses of the oxidative stress. We suggest that this approach on large-scale 2D-IPG proteomics of breast cancer is currently a valid tool that offers the opportunity to evaluate on the same assay the presence and recurrence of individual proteins, their isoforms and short forms, to be proposed as prognostic indicators and susceptibility to metastasis in patients operated on for invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast

    Proteomic profiling of 13 paired ductal infiltrating breast carcinomas and non-tumoral adjacent counterparts.

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    According to recent statistics, breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of death among women in Western countries. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease, presently classified into several subtypes according to their cellular origin. Among breast cancer histotypes, infiltrating ductal carcinoma represents the most common and potentially aggressive form. Despite the current progress achieved in early cancer detection and treatment, including the new generation of molecular therapies, there is still need for identification of multiparametric biomarkers capable of discriminating between cancer subtypes and predicting cancer progression for personalized therapies. One established step in this direction is the proteomic strategy, expected to provide enough information on breast cancer profiling. To this aim, in the present study we analyzed 13 breast cancer tissues and their matched non-tumoral tissues by 2-DE. Collectively, we identified 51 protein spots, corresponding to 34 differentially expressed proteins, which may represent promising candidate biomarkers for molecular-based diagnosis of breast cancer and for pattern discovery. The relevance of these proteins as factors contributing to breast carcinogenesis is discussed

    Production of monoclonal antibodies to Grapevine virus D and contribution to the study of its aetiological role in grapevine diseases

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    Six stable hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Grapevine virus D (GVD) were obtained by fusing spleen cells of immunized BALB/c mice with mouse myeloma cell line Sp 2/0-Ag 14, In ELISA all MAbs detected the virus in Nicotiana leaf extracts or cortical shavings from mature grapevine canes, The use of a polyclonal antiserum for coating plates and of monoclonal antibodies and antimouse-conjugated antibodies for antigen detection, gave highly efficient and reproducible results for identification of GVD in field-grown grapevines. The reliability of the ELISA kit was confirmed by GVD-transmission tests to herbaceous hosts, using in vitro explants as inoculum, 223 vines affected by one or more of the 4 syndroms of the rugose wood complex (Kober stem grooving, Corky bark, LN stem grooving and Rupestris stem pitting) were tested in ELISA for the detection of Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grapevine virus B (GVB) and GVD and by Western blot for the detection of Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV). The possible cause-effect relationship between GVA and KSG, GVB and Co, and GRSPaV and RSP was confirmed, but no consistent association was found between GVD and any of the 4 above syndromes, Intriguingly, a reduction in the expression of stem pitting symptoms in V. rupestris (from 90 % to 75 %) and of stem grooving symptoms in Kober 5BB (from 95 % to 70 %) was observed when vitiviruses and GRSPaV were contemporarily present in the same indicator. Preliminary data of a survey involving 676 grapevine samples showed a high incidence (31 %) of GVD, regardless of the geographical origin of samples.

    Test of Ultra Fast Silicon Detectors for the TOTEM upgrade project

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    This paper describes the performance of a prototype timing detector, based on 50 mu m thick Ultra Fast Silicon Detector, as measured in a beam test using a 180 GeV/c momentum pion beam. The dependence of the time precision on the pixel capacitance and bias voltage is investigated in this paper. A timing precision from 30 ps to 100 ps (RMS), depending on the pixel capacitance, has been measured at a bias voltage of 180 V.Peer reviewe

    Relationship and patterns of distribution among grapevine viroids from California and Europe

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    Analyses of California and European grapevine sources indicated a ubiquitous occurrence of viroids in these materials. Hybridization results indicated sequence homology to both GV-1 and GV-3 for viroids of varieties grown in California as well as from European sources. Wine and rootstock varieties contained a greater proportion of the more common GV-1 plus GV-3 viroid profile, whereas the table varieties contained a larger proportion of the relatively unusual viroid profile of GV-1, -2, and-3. An unexpected divergence of four viroid profiles emerged in the rootstock species. These profiles were 1) Gv-1, -2, and -3, 2) GV-1 plus GV-3, 3) GV-3, and 4) viroid-free. V. californica was the only grapevine analyzed which was found to be viroid-free

    Differential occurrence of S100A7 in breast cancer tissues: A proteomic-based investigation

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    PURPOSE: The present study reports for the first time a large-scale proteomic screening of the occurrence, subcellular localization and relative quantification of the S100A7 protein among a group of 100 patients, clinically grouped for the diagnosis of infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To this purpose, the methods of differential proteomics, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used. RESULTS: The identity of two isoforms of the protein was assessed by mass spectrometry and immunologically confirmed. Moreover, we proved by immunocytochemical applications the exclusive localization of the protein within the neoplastic cells. The correlation of S100A7 expression levels with the collective profile of cancer patients' proteomics predicted functional interactions, distinct for the two isoforms. The S100A7b isoform was significantly correlated with specific protein clusters (calcium binding, signaling and cell motion, heat shock and folding) and intercrossing pathways (antioxidant, metabolic and apoptotic pathways), while the more acidic isoform was correlated with a narrow number of proteins mainly unrelated to the b isoform. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study is the first proteomic-based report on S100A7 in a large series of IDC patients. The correlation with in silico data may significantly contribute the knowledge of possible pathways for S100A7, providing novel insights into the mechanism of action of this protein. We suggest that each S100A7 isoform is involved in critical phases of the breast cancer growth and progression, probably through interaction with different partner proteins

    Substantia Nigra Volumetry with 3-T MRI in De Novo and Advanced Parkinson Disease

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    Background: Magnetization transfer–prepared T1-weighted MRI can depict a hyperintense subregion of the substantia nigra involved in the degeneration process of Parkinson disease. / Purpose: To evaluate quantitative measurement of substantia nigra volume by using MRI to support clinical diagnosis and staging of Parkinson disease. / Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, a high-spatial-resolution magnetization transfer–prepared T1-weighted volumetric sequence was performed with a 3-T MRI machine between January 2014 and October 2015 for participants with de novo Parkinson disease, advanced Parkinson disease, and healthy control participants. A reproducible semiautomatic quantification analysis method that entailed mesencephalic intensity as an internal reference was used for hyperintense substantia nigra volumetry normalized to intracranial volume. A general linear model with age and sex as covariates was used to compare the three groups. / Results: Eighty participants were evaluated: 20 healthy control participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 56 years ± 11; 11 women), 29 participants with de novo Parkinson disease (64 years ± 10; 19 men), and 31 participants with advanced Parkinson disease (60 years ± 9; 16 women). Volumetric measurement of hyperintense substantia nigra from magnetization transfer–prepared T1-weighted MRI helped differentiate healthy control participants from participants with advanced Parkinson disease (mean difference for ipsilateral side, 64 mm3 ± 14, P < .001; mean difference for contralateral side, 109 mm3 ± 14, P < .001) and helped distinguish healthy control participants from participants with de novo Parkinson disease (mean difference for ipsilateral side, 45 mm3 ± 15, P < .01; mean difference for contralateral side, 66 mm3 ± 15, P < .001) and participants with de novo Parkinson disease from those with advanced Parkinson disease (mean difference for ipsilateral side, 20 mm3 ± 13, P = .40; mean difference for contralateral side, 43 mm3 ± 13, P = .004). / Conclusion: Magnetization transfer–prepared T1-weighted MRI volumetry of the substantia nigra helped differentiate the stages of Parkinson disease
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