3,196 research outputs found

    The HIBEAM/NNBAR Calorimeter Prototype

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    The HIBEAM/NNBAR experiment is a free-neutron search for n‚Üín \rightarrow sterile nn and n‚ÜínňČn \rightarrow \bar{n} oscillations planned to be installed at the European Spallation Source under construction in Lund, Sweden. A key component in the experiment is the detector to identify n‚ąínňČn-\bar{n} annihilation events, which will produce on average four pions with a final state invariant mass of two nucleons, around 1.9‚ÄČ1.9\,GeV. The beamline and experiment are shielded from magnetic fields which would suppress n‚ÜínňČn \rightarrow \bar{n} transitions, thus no momentum measurement will be possible. Additionally, calorimetry for particles with kinetic energies below 600‚ÄČ600\,MeV is challenging, as traditional sampling calorimeters used in HEP would suffer from poor shower statistics. A design study is underway to use a novel approach of a hadronic range measurement in multiple plastic scintillator layers, followed by EM calorimetery with lead glass. A prototype calorimeter system is being built, and will eventually be installed at an ESS test beam line for \textit{in situ} neutron background studies.Comment: Contribution to the International Conference on Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics (TIPP2021

    Interactions of Heavy Hadrons using Regge Phenomenology and the Quark Gluon String Model

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    The search for stable heavy exotic hadrons is a promising way to observe new physics processes at collider experiments. The discovery potential for such particles can be enhanced or suppressed by their interactions with detector material. This paper describes a model for the interactions in matter of stable hadrons containing an exotic quark of charges ¬Ī1/3e\pm {1/3}e or ¬Ī2/3e\pm {2/3}e using Regge phenomenology and the Quark Gluon String Model. The influence of such interactions on searches at the LHC is also discussed

    An incipient invasion of brown anole lizards (\u3cem\u3eAnolis sagrei\u3c/em\u3e) into their own native range in the Cayman Islands: a case of cryptic back-introduction

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    Human-mediated dispersal has reshaped distribution patterns and biogeographic relationships for many taxa. Long-distance and over-water dispersal were historically rare events for most species, but now human activities can move organisms quickly over long distances to new places. A potential consequence of human-mediated dispersal is the eventual reintroduction of individuals from an invasive population back into their native range; a dimension of biological invasion termed ‚Äúcryptic back-introduction.‚ÄĚ We investigated whether this phenomenon was occurring in the Cayman Islands where brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) with red dewlaps (i.e., throat fans), either native to Little Cayman or invasive on Grand Cayman, have been found on Cayman Brac where the native A. sagrei have yellow dewlaps. Our analysis of microsatellite data shows strong population-genetic structure among the three Cayman Islands, but also evidence for non-equilibrium. We found some instances of intermediate multilocus genotypes (possibly 3‚Äď9% of individuals), particularly between Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac. Furthermore, analysis of dewlap reflectance data classified six males sampled on Cayman Brac as having red dewlaps similar to lizards from Grand Cayman and Little Cayman. Lastly, one individual from Cayman Brac had an intermediate microsatellite genotype, a red dewlap, and a mtDNA haplotype from Grand Cayman. This mismatch among genetic and phenotypic data strongly suggests that invasive A. sagrei from Grand Cayman are interbreeding with native A. sagrei on Cayman Brac. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of cryptic back-introduction. Although we demonstrate this phenomenon is occurring in the Cayman Islands, assessing its frequency there and prevalence in other systems may prove difficult due to the need for genetic data in most instances. Cryptic back-introductions may eventually provide some insight into how lineages are changed by the invasion process and may be an underappreciated way in which invasive species impact native biodiversity

    Limit on the mass of a long-lived or stable gluino

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    We reinterpret the generic CDF charged massive particle limit to obtain a limit on the mass of a stable or long-lived gluino. Various sources of uncertainty are examined. The RR-hadron spectrum and scattering cross sections are modeled based on known low-energy hadron physics and the resultant uncertainties are quantified and found to be small compared to uncertainties from the scale dependence of the NLO pQCD production cross sections. The largest uncertainty in the limit comes from the unknown squark mass: when the squark -- gluino mass splitting is small, we obtain a gluino mass limit of 407 GeV, while in the limit of heavy squarks the gluino mass limit is 397 GeV. For arbitrary (degenerate) squark masses, we obtain a lower limit of 322 GeV on the gluino mass. These limits apply for any gluino lifetime longer than ‚ąľ30\sim 30 ns, and are the most stringent limits for such a long-lived or stable gluino.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in JHE

    Long-lived stops in MSSM scenarios with a neutralino LSP

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    This work investigates the possibility of a long-lived stop squark in supersymmetric models with the neutralino as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). We study the implications of meta-stable stops on the sparticle mass spectra and the dark matter density. We find that in order to obtain a sufficiently long stop lifetime so as to be observable as a stable R-hadron at an LHC experiment, we need to fine tune the mass degeneracy between the stop and the LSP considerably. This increases the stop-neutralino coanihilation cross section, leaving the neutralino relic density lower than what is expected from the WMAP results for stop masses ~1.5 TeV/c^2. However, if such scenarios are realised in nature we demonstrate that the long-lived stops will be produced at the LHC and that stop-based R-hadrons with masses up to 1 TeV/c^2 can be detected after one year of running at design luminosity

    An Updated Description of Heavy-Hadron Interactions in Geant-4

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    Exotic stable massive particles (SMP) are proposed in a number of scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. It is important that LHC experiments are able both to detect and extract the quantum numbers of any SMP with masses around the TeV scale. To do this, an understanding of the interactions of SMPs in matter is required. In this paper a Regge-based model of R-hadron scattering is extended and implemented in Geant-4. In addition, the implications of RR-hadron scattering for collider searches are discussed
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