11 research outputs found

    A Taxonomy of Causality-Based Biological Properties

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    We formally characterize a set of causality-based properties of metabolic networks. This set of properties aims at making precise several notions on the production of metabolites, which are familiar in the biologists' terminology. From a theoretical point of view, biochemical reactions are abstractly represented as causal implications and the produced metabolites as causal consequences of the implication representing the corresponding reaction. The fact that a reactant is produced is represented by means of the chain of reactions that have made it exist. Such representation abstracts away from quantities, stoichiometric and thermodynamic parameters and constitutes the basis for the characterization of our properties. Moreover, we propose an effective method for verifying our properties based on an abstract model of system dynamics. This consists of a new abstract semantics for the system seen as a concurrent network and expressed using the Chemical Ground Form calculus. We illustrate an application of this framework to a portion of a real metabolic pathway

    Review of \u3ci\u3eWolves for the Blue Soldiers: Indian Scouts and Auxiliaries with the United States Army, 1860-1890\u3c/i\u3e By Thomas W. Dunlay

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    Books on the U.S. military in the trans-Mississippi West abound. Yet surprisingly, no comprehensive study of the familiar but exotic Indian scouts has been published. Thomas W. Dunlay\u27s work sets out to fill this void and is on the whole very successful. Dunlay approaches his subject in an analytic, thematic manner. He has a set of questions that frame the central chapters of his book. In general, he wants to understand why the U.S. military chose to include Indians in its western service and how these Indians were used. In addition, he seeks to understand the Indian point-of-view, the dynamics behind choosing to serve and, on occasion, choosing to fight against fellow tribesmen. Dunlay uncovers diverse explanations, but he does not hesitate to draw some important conclusions. Assessing military attitudes toward the scouts, he believes, The more closely an officer\u27s mental world was confined to the army and the more obvious military values, the less likely he was to appreciate Indian allies (p. 68). Effective white leaders for the scouts had to respect the Indian way of doing things (p. 107). As for the Indians, intratribal rivalries as well as intertribal animosities explain a willingness to serve on the white side. In some cases, this service represented a vital military alliance against a powerful native adversary. Beyond these intercultural military matters, Dunlay\u27s book raises questions that are not answered. Dunlay sees the scouts\u27 often informal service as partial assimilation on Indian terms. If such is the case, then this reader would like to know more about the role of the scouts in their own tribes. Did scouts become the Indian police on the reservation? Did they become another type of vital intermediary like linguistic interpreters and Christian converts? In other words, what importance do these Indian scouts have within their own Indian societies during and after the thirty-year period of warfare examined in the book? In addition, a broader analysis of the perception and appreciation of the military within post-Civil War American society would be helpful. Dunlay rightly recognizes the humanitarian interest of many military officers toward the Indians. These military figures often felt they could do better in civilizing the Indians than could civilian government officials. Indeed, service as scouts was pointed out as one way toward Indian advancement. Yet, late nineteenth-century America did not view its own present-or the Indians\u27 future- civilization as a process of militarization. Why this rejection of the military way when many of the nation\u27s heroes were military figures, some of whom fought in the West with Indian scouts at their side? Dunlay\u27s thorough research and thoughtful analysis in this book show that he is the scholar who can attempt answers to these other questions as well

    No. 703 Clyde Milner

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    Transcript (44 pages) of an interview by Greg Smoak and Greg Thompson with historian Clyde Milner at Denver, Colorado, on 4 October 2012. Part of the Western History Association Oral History Project, Everett Cooley Collection tape no. U-3170Clyde Milner, longtime editor of the Western Historical Quarterly and professor of history at Utah State University and then Arkansas State University, remembers his career and his time at the WHQ. Professor Milner started at Duke University in religious studies, received a PhD in American Studies from Yale, and worked with famous Western historian Howard Lamar. Hired before he completed his degree, he taught at Utah State University for a quarter-century. When he became part of the WHQ editorial staff he also became active in the Western History Association, the journal´s parent organization, and received its Award of Merit in 2012. Professor Milner also explains the WHQ´s shift to keep pace with trends in scholarship, particularly the New Western History. He attributes much of the journal´s success in the New Western era to Charles Peterson, and talks at some length on the politics of WHQ editorship and teaching at Utah State in general, as well as dwelling on the perceived influence of Howard Lamar´s students in Western history. Project: Western History Association. Interviewer: Gregory C. Thompson and Greg Smoa

    Major Problems in the History of the American West

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    Documenting the Lives of Ohio Hopewell People: A Philosophical and Empirical Foundation

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