558 research outputs found

    The influence of hospital ward design on resilience to heat waves: An exploration using distributed lag models

    Get PDF
    Distributed lag models (DLMs) to predict future internal temperatures have been developed using the hourly weather data and the internal temperatures recorded in eleven spaces on two UK National Health Service (NHS) hospital sites. The ward spaces were in five buildings of very different type and age. In all the DLMs, the best prediction of internal temperature was obtained using three exogenous drivers, previous internal temperature, external temperature and solar radiation. DLMs were sensitive to the buildings’ differences in orientation, thermal mass and shading and were validated by comparing the predictions with the internal temperatures recorded in the summer of 2012. The results were encouraging, with both modelled and recorded data showing good correlation. To understand the resilience of the spaces to heat waves, the DLMs were fed with weather data recorded during the hot summer of 2006. The Nightingale wards and traditional masonry wards showed remarkable resilience to the hot weather. In contrast, light-weight modular buildings were predicted to overheat dangerously. By recording internal temperatures for a short period, DLMs might be created that can forecast future temperatures in many other types of naturally ventilated or mixed-mode buildings as a means of assessing overheating ris

    Running Backwards: Consequences of Current HIV Incidence Rates for the Next Generation of Black MSM in the United States

    Get PDF
    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately impacted by HIV. To better understand this public health problem, we reviewed the literature to calculate an estimate of HIV incidence among Black MSM. We used this rate to model HIV prevalence over time within a simulated cohort, which we subsequently compared to prevalence from community-based samples. We searched all databases accessible through PubMed, and Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections abstracts for HIV incidence estimates among Black MSM. Summary HIV incidence rates and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Using the average incidence rate, we modeled HIV prevalence within a simulated cohort of Black MSM (who were all HIV-negative at the start) from ages 18 through 40. Based on five incidence rates totaling 2898 Black MSM, the weighted mean incidence was 4.16 % per year (95 % CI 2.76‚Äď5.56). Using this annual incidence rate, our model predicted that 39.94 % of Black MSM within the simulated cohort would be HIV-positive by age 30, and 60.73 % by 40. Projections were similar to HIV prevalence found in community-based samples of Black MSM. High HIV prevalence will persist across the life-course among Black MSM, unless effective prevention and treatment efforts are increased to substantially reduce HIV transmission among this underserved and marginalized population

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in autism spectrum disorder: protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial

    Get PDF
    Introduction There are no well-established biomedical treatments for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A small number of studies suggest that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique, may improve clinical and cognitive outcomes in ASD. We describe here the protocol for a funded multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate whether a course of rTMS to the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), which has demonstrated abnormal brain activation in ASD, can improve social communication in adolescents and young adults with ASD. Methods and analysis This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 4-week course of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a variant of rTMS) in ASD. Participants meeting criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ASD (n=150, aged 14‚Äď40 years) will receive 20 sessions of either active iTBS (600 pulses) or sham iTBS (in which a sham coil mimics the sensation of iTBS, but no active stimulation is delivered) to the rTPJ. Participants will undergo a range of clinical, cognitive, epi/genetic, and neurophysiological assessments before and at multiple time points up to 6‚ÄČmonths after iTBS. Safety will be assessed via a structured questionnaire and adverse event reporting. The study will be conducted from November 2020 to October 2024. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Monash Health (Melbourne, Australia) under Australia‚Äôs National Mutual Acceptance scheme. The trial will be conducted according to Good Clinical Practice, and findings will be written up for scholarly publication. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12620000890932)

    Search for direct production of charginos and neutralinos in events with three leptons and missing transverse momentum in ‚ąös = 7 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Get PDF
    A search for the direct production of charginos and neutralinos in final states with three electrons or muons and missing transverse momentum is presented. The analysis is based on 4.7 fb‚ąí1 of proton‚Äďproton collision data delivered by the Large Hadron Collider and recorded with the ATLAS detector. Observations are consistent with Standard Model expectations in three signal regions that are either depleted or enriched in Z-boson decays. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set in R-parity conserving phenomenological minimal supersymmetric models and in simplified models, significantly extending previous results

    Jet size dependence of single jet suppression in lead-lead collisions at sqrt(s(NN)) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC